Merriman

Establishing a digestible calcium requirement for pigs

Stein, H. H., L. A. Merriman, and J. C. González-Vega. 2016. Establishing a digestible calcium requirement for pigs. Pages 207-216 in Phytate destruction—consequences for precision animal nutrition. Walk, C. L., ed. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. Link to full text (coming soon)

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Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4231-4238. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs

Merriman, L. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3844-3850. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Calcium digestibility and requirements for digestible calcium by growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., L. M. Merriman, and H. H. Stein. Calcium digestibility and requirements for digestible calcium by growing pigs. Pages 57-61 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 9, 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in milk co-products fed to growing pigs

Milk co-products are used in pig diets to provide lactose and, in some cases, high quality protein. In addition, milk co-products also provide calcium to the diets. However, this calcium can potentially bind to the phytate contained in the plant ingredients in the diets, which would reduce its digestibility.

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Digestible calcium requirement for 100 to 130 kg pigs

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Digestible calcium requirement for 100 to 130 kg pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):458 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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The effect of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2016. The effect of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of fat sources on ATTD of minerals

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effect of fat sources on ATTD of minerals. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):104 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Most swine diets must be supplemented with calcium because most plant ingredients commonly used in diets for pigs contain relatively little calcium. One way to add calcium is to include inorganic sources such as dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate; however, animal ingredients such as meat byproduct meals can also be used. These ingredients, often used as a protein source, are also a good source of calcium. To our knowledge, values for apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of calcium in animal sources have not been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the ATTD and STTD of calcium in four calcium sources of animal origin.

The secondary objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of microbial phytase to diets containing calcium sources of animal origin would increase the digestibility of calcium. Although animal sources do not contain phytate, swine diets are composed primarily of plant ingredients, and the phytate in those ingredients might form complexes with the calcium in the animal sources.

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Effect of particle size of calcium carbonate on growth performance in growing pigs

In poultry, the particle size of inorganic calcium sources has been shown to affect calcium retention and eggshell quality. However, little is known about the effect of particle size of inorganic calcium fed to pigs. Results of a previous experiment conducted in the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab indicated that calcium digestibility and retention were not affected by the particle size of supplemental calcium carbonate. A follow-up study was conducted to test the hypothesis that calcium carbonate particle does not affect growth performance by weanling pigs.

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Effect of particle size in calcium carbonate on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility and retention of calcium by growing pigs

Merriman, L. A. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of particle size in calcium carbonate on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility and retention of calcium by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):52 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of particle size in calcium carbonate on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility and retention of calcium by growing pigs

Particle size is an important consideration for some feed ingredients in pig diets. Reducing the particle size of cereal grains and soybean meal in diets fed to pigs improves digestibility of energy, amino acids, and other nutrients, because feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work.

The particle size of inorganic calcium sources has been shown to affect calcium retention in poultry. Particle sizes of 1.00 mm or greater are recommended to optimize calcium retention and eggshell quality in laying hens, but coarse particle sizes result in reduced calcium retention in broiler chicks.  However, little is known about the effect of particle size of calcium sources fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test different particle sizes of calcium carbonate and determine which size optimizes calcium digestibility and retention by growing pigs.

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