Stein

Digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are two coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as sources of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder. The composition of wheat middlings varies from mill to mill because of the different conditions under which they are produced.

Wheat and wheat co-products contain more non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) than other grains commonly fed to pigs. Because pigs lack the enzymes needed to digest NSPs, this may affect the digestibility of energy and nutrients. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), and organic matter (OM), and the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in ten sources of wheat middlings as well as one source of red dog.

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Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances. J. Anim. Sci. 94:5272-5285. Link to abstract

Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

Pedersen, T. F., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds. J. Anim. Sci 94:5206-5218. Link to abstract

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Effect of adding tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to diets for weanling pigs

Copper is an essential micronutrient for animals. It is involved in cellular respiration and connective tissue development as well as being an essential component of several enzymes. High doses of copper—about 20 times the nutritional requirement—have been shown to improve growth performance in pigs. This may be because copper has an antimicrobial effect in the intestinal tract.

When supplemental copper is added to pig diets, it is usually in the form of copper sulfate. However, another form called tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) has been shown to be equally effective and may be  more bioavailable, but it is not yet known how much TBCC should be fed to optimize performance. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding 100 or 200 mg/kg TBCC to diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as a source of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder.

The digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in wheat coproducts produced in China has been reported, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of wheat middlings and red dog produced in the United States. In addition, because wheat coproducts vary in terms of the conditions under which they are produced, their nutritional value may vary as well. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings and in one source of red dog.

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Calcium transporters and gene expression and absorption of calcium in pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Calcium transporters and gene expression and absorption of calcium in pigs. Pages 217-224 in Phytate destruction—consequences for precision animal nutrition. Walk, C. L., ed. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. Link to full text (coming soon)

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Establishing a digestible calcium requirement for pigs

Stein, H. H., L. A. Merriman, and J. C. González-Vega. 2016. Establishing a digestible calcium requirement for pigs. Pages 207-216 in Phytate destruction—consequences for precision animal nutrition. Walk, C. L., ed. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. Link to full text (coming soon)

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Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for growing pigs. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1339-1344. Link to abstract

Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1312-1316. Link to abstract

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Non-antibiotic feed additives in diets for pigs

Liu, Y., D. Espinosa, J. J. Abelilla, G. A. Casas, L. V. Lagos, S. A. Lee, W. B. Kwon, J. K. Mathai, D. M.D. L. Navarro, N. W. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Non-antibiotic feed additives in diets for pigs. Pages 263-281 in Proceedings of the 2016 Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, China, October 20-21, 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of feed processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients or diets fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of feed processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients or diets fed to pigs. Pages 33-49 in Proceedings of the 2016 Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, China, October 20-21, 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs

C. Pedersen, C, J. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 3):340-343. Link to abstract

Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4231-4238. Link to abstract

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Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts

Mathai, J. K, J. K. Htoo, J. E. Thomson, K. J. Touchette, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4217-4230. Link to abstract

Effects of collection time on flow of chromium and dry matter and on basal ileal endogenous losses of amino acids in growing pigs

Kim, B. G., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of collection time on flow of chromium and dry matter and on basal ileal endogenous losses of amino acids in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4196-4204. Link to abstract

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Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4179-4187. Link to abstract

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Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal produced in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, India, or China

Soybean meal is the premier source of high quality plant protein for pig diets. However, the nutritional value of soybean meal can vary among sources due to genetic differences in soybean varieties or differences in climate, soil type, fertilizer application, or processing conditions. It is important that these variations be documented so that producers can accurately formulate diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine if standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids varied among sources of soybean meal from the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, India, or China.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in and around Illinois

Curry, S. M., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in and around Illinois. Prof. Anim. Sci. 32:687-694. Link to abstract

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Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs

Merriman, L. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3844-3850. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Use of the pig to determine digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in human foods

Stein, H. H., and J. K. Mathai. 2016. Use of the pig to determine digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in human foods. Proc. 5th Intl. Symp. Energy and Protein. Krakow, Poland, Sep. 12 to 15, 2016.

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