Stein

Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs

Stein, H. H., G. A. Casas, J. J. Abelilla, Y. Liu, and R. C. Sulabo. 2015. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 6:56. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for weanling pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for weanling pigs. Page 31 in Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, October 26-28, 2015. (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Page 23 in Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, October 26-28, 2015. (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of co-products from the tropical food industry and of novel feed ingredients

Stein, H. H. 2015. Nutritional value of co-products from the tropical food industry and of novel feed ingredients. 28th Annual PHILSAN Convention, Pasay City, Manila, Philippines, October 8, 2015. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Most swine diets must be supplemented with calcium because most plant ingredients commonly used in diets for pigs contain relatively little calcium. One way to add calcium is to include inorganic sources such as dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate; however, animal ingredients such as meat byproduct meals can also be used. These ingredients, often used as a protein source, are also a good source of calcium. To our knowledge, values for apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of calcium in animal sources have not been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the ATTD and STTD of calcium in four calcium sources of animal origin.

The secondary objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of microbial phytase to diets containing calcium sources of animal origin would increase the digestibility of calcium. Although animal sources do not contain phytate, swine diets are composed primarily of plant ingredients, and the phytate in those ingredients might form complexes with the calcium in the animal sources.

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Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak-Peper, K. M., J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:5694-5701. Link to full text (.pdf)

Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs

Li, Z., X. Wang, P. Guo, L. Liu, X. Piao, H. H. Stein, D. Li, and C. Lai. 2015. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 69:473-486. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestible calcium requirements for 25 to 50 kg pigs

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Digestible calcium requirements for 25 to 50 kg pigs. Memorias XVII Congreso Bienal AMENA. Puerto Vallarta, Jal. Mexico. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of energy in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is the main protein source used in diets for pigs in the United States, as well as most countries of the world, due to the high quality of the protein it provides. However, soybean meal also contains antinutritional factors that limit its use in weanling pig diets. Pigs do not secrete the enzyme needed for the hydrolysis of raffinose and stachyose, α-galactosidase, in the small intestine. Therefore, these oligosaccharides are not enzymatically digested, but are instead fermented in the small and large intestines. This results in decreased growth performance and increased incidence of diarrhea when fed to weanling pigs.

Oligosaccharides can be removed from soybean meal using an alcohol extraction process, creating soy protein concentrate. Soy protein concentrate has greater digestibility of most amino acids and greater concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than soybean meal. A new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced, which is produced using a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. The nutritional value of soy protein concentrate produced using this method has not been determined. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate and to compare these values to DE and ME in soybean meal.

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn grain on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn grain fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn grain on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn grain fed to growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 181:187-193. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:4808-4818. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by extracting some of the non-protein components of soybean meal, including soluble carbohydrates, from soybean meal. These soluble carbohydrates include oligosaccharides, which reduce the tolerance of young pigs to conventional soybean meal. With the oligosaccharides removed, soy protein concentrate can be used as a source of protein in diets for weanling pigs.

Most soy protein concentrate is produced using an alcohol extraction process. However, a new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced, which uses a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in this new ingredient.

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Non starch polysaccharides, Energy digestibility, Fiber digestibility

Jaworski, N. W. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Nonstarch polysaccharide composition influences the energy value of grains and co-products. Page 262 in Proceedings of the 66th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP), Warsaw, Poland, August 31-September 4, 2015. Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of pelleting growing-finishing swine diets on growth, carcass, and bacon characteristics

Boler, D. D., M. F. Overholt, J. E. Lowell, A. C. Dilger, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of pelleting growing-finishing swine diets on growth, carcass, and bacon characteristics. Pages 23-30 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 10, 2015. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein in diets fed to pigs. However, soybean meal contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides, which decrease nutrient availability and limit the amount of soybean meal that can be fed in weanling pig diets.

Soy protein concentrate is produced by processing soybean meal to remove some nonprotein components, including the soluble carbohydrates. This leaves soy protein concentrate with a greater concentration of crude protein and amino acids than soybean meal. The presence of oligosaccharides in soybean meal has been shown to reduce the tolerance of young pigs to conventional soybean meal, and therefore, animal proteins rather than soybean meal is often used in diets for young pigs. However, if the oligosaccharides and other antinutritional factors can be removed from soybean meal, it is possible to use soybean meal in diets for young pigs instead of animal proteins.

Typically, an alcohol extraction process has been used to remove soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal to create soy protein concentrate. However, a new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced. Nutrivance is produced using a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. The nutritional value of soy protein concentrate produced using this method has not been determined. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in this new source of soy protein concentrate.

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Calcium balance at different levels of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus in weanling pigs

Recent studies conducted in our laboratory have determined values for standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of calcium in feed ingredients fed to pigs. However, there is a lack of information about the requirement for STTD calcium in diets for pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure calcium balance at different levels of STTD calcium in diets fed to 11 to 25 kg pigs.

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Effects of post-harvest storage duration and variety on nutrient digestibility and energy content wheat in finishing pigs

Guo, P. P., P. L. Li, Z. C. Li, H. H. Stein, L. Liu, T. Xia, Y. Y. Yang, and Y. X. Ma. 2015. Effects of post-harvest storage duration and variety on nutrient digestibility and energy content wheat in finishing pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 28:1488-1495. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A., J. A. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 207:150-158. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of particle size of calcium carbonate on growth performance in growing pigs

In poultry, the particle size of inorganic calcium sources has been shown to affect calcium retention and eggshell quality. However, little is known about the effect of particle size of inorganic calcium fed to pigs. Results of a previous experiment conducted in the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab indicated that calcium digestibility and retention were not affected by the particle size of supplemental calcium carbonate. A follow-up study was conducted to test the hypothesis that calcium carbonate particle does not affect growth performance by weanling pigs.

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Growth performance and bone mineralization in weanling pigs fed diets containing different levels of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus

It is important to include calcium and phosphorus in the diets in the proper proportions because the excess or deficiency of one mineral may affect the utilization of the other. Calcium requirements in the 2012 NRC are based on a model, which used a 2.15 ratio of total calcium to standardized total tract digestible (STTD) phosphorus. An optimal ratio of STTD calcium to STTD phosphorus has not been reported because not enough data exist on the standardized total tract digestibility of calcium. However, recent studies conducted by the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab have determined values for STTD calcium for several calcium sources. With these data, it is possible to determine the requirement for STTD calcium. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the requirement of STTD calcium to maximize growth performance and bone ash in 11 to 25 kg pigs.

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