Stein

Effects of pelleting and extrusion on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets fed to pigs

Pelleting and extrusion are technologies that have been used in livestock feeding to improve nutrient digestibility and feed conversion. Recent research concluded that reduced performance of pigs fed diets containing high concentrations of fiber was ameliorated if the diets were pelleted. Extrusion is also of benefit in high fiber diets, because it may increase the solubility of dietary fiber. It is possible that the benefits of extrusion and pelleting are greater in high fiber diets than in low fiber diets, but this hypothesis has not been investigated. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine effects of extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber.

Keywords: 
Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers’ yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Kim, B. G, Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers’ yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:5476-5484. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

After corn and wheat, rice is the third most widely grown cereal grain worldwide. Most rice is processed to produce polished white rice for human consumption, and several co-products result from this processing. First, the outer husk, or hull, of the grain is removed. The dehulled grain, consisting of the bran, germ, and endosperm, is brown rice. To produce white rice, the brown rice is milled further and the bran is removed. Rice bran is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. Rice bran is sometimes combined with rice hulls to produce rice mill feed. During milling of the rice, some kernels may get broken and cannot be used for human consumption. These broken kernels are known as broken rice or brewers rice and may also be used in animal feeding.

The phosphorus content of rice is similar to that of corn. Most of the phosphorus in rice is in the bran fraction, and 80-85% of the phosphorus in rice bran is bound to phytate, which limits its digestibility by pigs. Microbial phytase can be used in swine diets to increase the digestibility of phytate-bound phosphorus. However, limited information exists about phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products and how it is affected by microbial phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in brown rice, broken rice, full fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), and rice mill feed fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of microbial phytase on phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of extrusion of corn and oats on the digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fiber in diets fed to pigs

In extrusion, cereal grains are processed under conditions of heat and pressure. Like other types of heat treatment, extrusion may reduce the concentration of antinutritional factors. Extrusion also gelatinizes starch, improving its digestibility. Improved digestibility of starch should, in turn, lead to an increase in digestible energy. Extrusion has also been shown in some studies to solubilize the insoluble fraction of the fiber which would also increase fiber digestibility and digestible energy.

Corn is a high starch ingredient, while oats are high in fiber. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of extruding corn and oats on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and fiber when fed to growing pigs.

Keywords: 
Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:5222-5229. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower–finisher swine

Mahan, D. C., M. Azain, T. D. Crenshaw, G. L. Cromwell, C. R. Dove, S. W. Kim, M. D. Lindemann, P. S. Miller, J. E. Pettigrew, H. H. Stein, and E. van Heugten. 2014. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4991-4997. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Gutierrez, N. A., D. Y. Kil, Y. Liu, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94:3008-3016. Link to full text (.pdf)

Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., M. Song, F. N. Almeida, S. L. Tilton, M. J. Cecava, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4557-4565. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4540-4546. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing–finishing pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, D. C. Mahan, G. M. Hill, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing–finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4486-4493. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., M. Song, T. Maison, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4466-4477. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the ethanol industry and is often used as an economical source of energy and protein in swine diets. Conventional DDGS contains approximately 27% crude protein, 10% fat, 9% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and 25% (NDF). The concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in conventional sources of DDGS are approximately 3,500 and 3,350 kcal/kg, respectively. However, there is significant variation in the way different plants produce DDGS. For example, in recent years ethanol plants have begun extracting oil from DDGS to sell to the biodiesel industry. This results in DDGS with its fat content reduced to approximately 6 to 9%, which may result in lower concentrations of DE and ME.

If pigs are fed diets containing decreased levels of DE and ME relative to conventional DDGS, a reduction in growth performance may result. This would make DDGS a less economical feedstuff. An experiment was conducted to determine the variability of DE and ME in DDGS produced in and around Illinois.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

Global production of rice is third in terms of total tonnage after corn and wheat. Rice is grown to produce polished white rice for human consumption. However, harvested rice, called paddy rice or rough rice, needs to be dehulled, which results in production of brown rice. The outer brown bran layer of brown rice, known as rice bran, also needs to be removed before polished white rice is produced. Approximately 20% of the paddy rice is hulls and the bran fraction is 8 to 10%, so only 70% of the paddy rice will become polished rice. Rice bran is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. During milling of the rice, some kernels may get broken and cannot be used for human consumption. These broken kernels are known as broken rice or brewers rice and may also be used in animal feeding. Broken rice is high in starch and contains little fat, fiber, or protein.

Both rice bran and broken rice may be fed to pigs, but these ingredients are poorly characterized in terms of nutritional value. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in broken rice, two sources of full fat rice bran (FFRB), and defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs. Animal 8:1594-1602. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

When evaluating the energy content of pig diets, producers and feed companies in the United States usually use the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) systems. However, these systems do not take into account the heat produced by the animals during digestion, and thus the energy lost by pigs in the process of digesting and metabolizing the feed. Pigs fed diets high in fiber have greater feed intake, larger gastrointestinal tracts, and increased hindgut fermentation relative to pigs fed diets containing less fiber. Therefore, they might be expected to have greater heat production as well. As a result, the DE and ME systems may overestimate the energy value of fibrous feed ingredients. Net energy (NE) takes heat production into account, and thus may be a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the pig.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs will increase heat production and decrease net energy values.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Nutritional value of soybean products

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean products. Pages 19-25 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 4, 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of DE and ME and on digestibility of energy, organic matter, and fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of the ethanol industry, is an affordable source of energy and protein in pig diets. DDGS contains more gross energy than corn, but the energy is less digestible because of the high concentration of insoluble fiber in DDGS. If the fiber in DDGS could be made more soluble with pretreatment, its feed value would be improved.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of physical, chemical, and enzymatic pretreatments on the concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy and on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy, organic matter, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral (NDF) detergent fiber.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Estimation of the requirement for standardized ileal digestible lysine in 25 to 50 kg gilts

Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in swine diets based on corn and soybean meal. Lysine requirements for pigs are affected by growth rate and lean deposition rate, which in turn are affected by sex, genetics, age, and other factors. An experiment was conducted to determine the requirement for standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine in 25 to 50 kg growing gilts.

Keywords: 
Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in processed soybean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):668 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Pages