Amino acid digestibility

Procedures for determining digestibility of amino acids, lipids, starch, fibre, phosphorus, and calcium in feed ingredients fed to pigs

Stein, H. H. 2017. Procedures for determining digestibility of amino acids, lipids, starch, fibre, phosphorus, and calcium in feed ingredients fed to pigs. Anim. Prod. Sci. 57:2317-2324. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in Dakota Gold distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to pigs is greater than in conventional DDGS

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of ethanol production. In recent years, companies that produce DDGS have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

Research has shown that adding fat to diets fed to pigs increases the digestibility of amino acids in the diets. However, there is limited information about how reduced oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of protein when fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in conventional DDGS and in the low-oil DDGS product Dakota Gold, which is produced using a process that does not involve heating.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Comparative ileal digestibility of amino acids in 00-rapeseed meal and rapeseed meal fed to growing male broilers

Ullah, Z., Z. U. Rehman, Y. Yin, H. H. Stein, Z. Hayat, G. Ahmed, M. U. Nisa, M. Akhtar, and M. Sarwar. 2017. Comparative ileal digestibility of amino acids in 00-rapeseed meal and rapeseed meal fed to growing male broilers. Poult. Sci. 96:2736–2742. Link to abstract

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are fed to pigs as a source of energy and amino acids. In recent years, ethanol plants have begun recovering corn oil from DDGS to sell for biodiesel and other uses. Conventional corn DDGS contains 10-12 fat, compared with 5-9% fat in low oil DDGS. Previous research in our lab showed that amino acid digestibility was reduced in low oil DDGS compared with conventional DDGS, but that research used DDGS from only one supplier. An experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in low oil DDGS sourced from multiple different suppliers.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

The ileal digestibility of most amino acids is greater in red dog than in wheat middlings when fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2017. The ileal digestibility of most amino acids is greater in red dog than in wheat middlings when fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:2718-2725. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients

Navarro, D. M. D. L., Y. Liu, T. S. Bruun, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients. J. Anim. Sci. 95:2658-2669. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Digestibility of energy, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility in conventional and high protein DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product from the dry-grind ethanol production. It is increasingly in demand for use in livestock feeding, including diets fed to pigs. Conventional DDGS (DDGS-CV) contains approximately 27% crude protein. A high protein DDGS (DDGS-HP) product, containing 38 to 40% crude protein, has recently been developed by Lincolnway Energy by using front end separation that allows for fractionation of the corn kernel before it is fermented. The nutritional value for pigs of the resulting  DDGS-HP has, however, not yet been fully described.

Therefore, two experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to determine the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in DDGS-HP and DDGS-CV fed to growing pigs. In the second experiment, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in DDGS-CV and DDGS-HP were compared.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India

Lagos, L. V. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India. J. Anim. Sci. 95:1626-1636. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A., C. Huang, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):148 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India

Lagos, L. V. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):93 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak-Peper, K. M., J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:771-778. Link to abstract

Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as a source of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder.

The digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in wheat coproducts produced in China has been reported, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of wheat middlings and red dog produced in the United States. In addition, because wheat coproducts vary in terms of the conditions under which they are produced, their nutritional value may vary as well. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings and in one source of red dog.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs

C. Pedersen, C, J. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 3):340-343. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal produced in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, India, or China

Soybean meal is the premier source of high quality plant protein for pig diets. However, the nutritional value of soybean meal can vary among sources due to genetic differences in soybean varieties or differences in climate, soil type, fertilizer application, or processing conditions. It is important that these variations be documented so that producers can accurately formulate diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine if standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids varied among sources of soybean meal from the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, India, or China.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets

Huang, C., H. H. Stein, and G. A. Casas. 2016. Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets. Pages 32-33 in Pig Progress, July 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, M. S. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3343-3352. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal, followed by heat treatment. The ethanol extraction process removes soluble carbohydrates, leaving a product that contains at least 65% crude protein (dry matter basis). Because soy protein concentrate contains reduced levels of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, and lectins compared with conventional soybean meal, it can be used in diets for weanling pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., E. Vinyeta, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:1951-1960. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Amino acid digestibility in soy protein concentrate with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal, followed by heat treatment. The ethanol extraction process removes soluble carbohydrates, leaving a product that contains at least 65% crude protein. Because soy protein concentrate contains reduced levels of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, and lectins compared with conventional soybean meal, it can be used in diets for weanling pigs.

Reducing the particle size of soybean meal can increase amino acid digestibility due to the increased surface area for enzymes to work on. However, there are no known data on the effect of particle size on amino acid digestibility in soy protein concentrate. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in soy protein concentrate ground to three different particle sizes and to compare these values to values for soybean meal and fish meal when fed to weanling pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., N. W. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):105 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Pages