Calcium

Nutritional value of soybean products

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean products. Pages 19-25 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 4, 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of Ca and digestibility of Ca in canola meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of Ca and digestibility of Ca in canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):190 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and apparent and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs

When formulating diets for pigs, it is more accurate to use values for standardized or true nutrient digestibility than values for apparent nutrient digestibility because the former are additive in mixed diets. No values for standardized or true total tract digestibility of calcium in pigs have been reported. The true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of a nutrient is calculated by correcting apparently total tract digestibility (ATTD) by total endogenous losses, which may be estimated using a regression procedure. To our knowledge, no measurements of the endogenous loss of calcium in pigs have been reported. An experiment was, therefore,  performed to measure endogenous loss of calcium and to determine TTTD of calcium in growing pigs, and to investigate if  the addition of microbial phytase to the diets affects TTTD of calcium. In addition, calcium retention was measured in pigs fed diets containing varying levels of calcium with or without microbial phytase.

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Evaluation of the nutritional value of sources of canola meal fed to pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Natural rapeseed contains glucosinolates, which make feed unpalatable, and erucic acid, which is toxic to animals. These anti-nutritional factors are heat-stable, and therefore, cannot be removed by heat-treating rapeseed. Rapeseed, which is low in both glucosinolates and erucic acid, has been produced by hybridization, and is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola and rapeseeds via solvent extraction or mechanically expelling. The solvent extraction process results in production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal and mechanical expelling of oil results in production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers.

The objective of this study was to compare the chemical compositions of canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal from Europe and to compare the composition of 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.  Ten samples of canola meal were collected from crushing plants in North America, and eleven samples of 00-rapeseed meal and five samples of 00-rapeseed expellers were collected from crushing plants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for energy, fat, sugar, starch, fiber, crude protein, amino acids, and minerals.

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Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs

Stein, H. H., O. Adeola, G. L. Cromwell, S. W. Kim, D. C. Mahan, and P. S. Miller. 2011. Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2139-2144. Link to full text (.pdf)

Differences in total tract and ileal digestibility coefficients of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs fed low phytate corn, normal corn, soybean meal, and corn soybean meal based diets

Bohlke, R. A., H. H. Stein, A. R. Wirt, and R. C. Thaler. 2003. Differences in total tract and ileal digestibility coefficients of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs fed low phytate corn, normal corn, soybean meal, and corn soybean meal based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):100 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Influence of dietary phosphorus concentration on the digestibility of phoshorus in monocalcium phosphate by growing pigs

Stein, H. H., C. T. Kadzere, S. W. Kim, and P. S. Miller. 2008. Influence of dietary phosphorus concentration on the digestibility of phoshorus in monocalcium phosphate by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1861-1867. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Calcium, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal by growing pigs

Bohlke, R. A., R. C. Thaler, and H. H. Stein. 2005. Calcium, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.83:2396-2403. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of different dietary acidifier sources of calcium and phosphorus on ammonia, methane and odorant emission from growing-finishing pigs

van Kempen, A. T. G., H. H. Stein, W. J. Powers, P. R. Ferket, and I. B. Kim. 2004. Effects of different dietary acidifier sources of calcium and phosphorus on ammonia, methane and odorant emission from growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1131-1138. Link to full text (.pdf)