Canola meal

Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China

Huang, C. F., H. H. Stein, L. Y. Zhang, D. Li, and C. H. Lai. 2017. Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China. Transl. Anim. Sci. 1:126-136. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

She, Y., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:2061-2070. Link to abstract

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Productivity of sows fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds during gestation and lactation

Canola meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source used in animal diets. However, the digestibility of amino acids and digestible energy is lower in canola meal than in soybean meal because of the high concentration of fiber in canola meal. The high fiber content and the presence of glucosinolates limit inclusion of canola meal in diets fed to pigs.

Research on using canola meal in pig diets at different stages has indicated that it can be used in gestation diets without limitation and 15 to 20% may be included in lactation diets. However, at least one study indicated that including canola meal in gestating and lactation diets reduced the number of pigs born alive and the number of pigs weaned, and also reduced lactation feed intake and litter weaning weight.

New canola varieties have been developed that yield meal with more protein and less fiber compared with conventional canola meal (CM-CV). The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of feeding diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or CM-CV to sows during gestation and lactation, and to determine the optimum inclusion rates of CM-HP and CM-CV in gestation and lactation diets.

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Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

Pedersen, T. F., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds. J. Anim. Sci 94:5206-5218. Link to abstract

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Effect of increasing concentrations of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus by pigs

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effect of increasing concentrations of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus by pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):459 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of inclusion of canola meal in weanling pig diets containing different concentrations of energy

Pedersen, T. F., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of inclusion of canola meal in weanling pig diets containing different concentrations of energy. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):459 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., N. W. Jaworski, O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 212:52-62. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Apparent and standardized total tract digestibility by growing pigs of phosphorus in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe without and with microbial phytase

Maison, T., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Apparent and standardized total tract digestibility by growing pigs of phosphorus in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe without and with microbial phytase. J. Anim. Sci. 93:3494-3502. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Berrocoso, J. D., O. J. Rojas, Y. Liu, J. Shoulders, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:2208-2217. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Parr, C. K., Y. Liu, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:2165-2173. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of feeding canola meal from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cutability of pigs

Little, K. L., B. M. Bohrer, T. Maison, Y. Liu, H. H. Stein and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of feeding canola meal from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cutability of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:1284-1297. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs

Maison, T., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:652-660. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon

Little, K. L., B. M. Bohrer, H. H. Stein, and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon. Meat Sci. 103:28-38. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Phosphorus digestibility in high protein canola meals, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Parr, C. K., Y. Liu, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Phosphorus digestibility in high protein canola meals, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):641 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Performance of pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds

Liu, Y., T. Maison, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Performance of pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):225-6 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in two sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in two sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):220 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe. J. Anim. Sci. 92:3502-3514. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestible phosphorus in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers without and with microbial phytase fed to nursery pigs

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible phosphorus in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers without and with microbial phytase fed to nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):141 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in processed soybean products, rapeseed expellers, and a fermented mixture of co-products fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. It is possible that fermentation can make 00-rapeseed meals and 00-rapeseed expellers suitable for feeding to weanling pigs, but no research has been conducted to confirm this hypothesis. An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by weanling pigs of crude protein and amino acids in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

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Performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs fed diets containing high protein or conventional canola meal

Canola meal can be used as a source of protein in swine diets, but conventional canola meal contains less protein than soybean meal. In recent years, new varieties of canola have been developed with seeds that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola seeds. The meal from these new varieties of canola has a protein content similar to that of soybean meal.

Previous research at the University of Illinois demonstrated that diets containing at least 30% high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV) could be fed to nursery pigs without reducing growth performance. It has not yet been determined how much soybean meal can be replaced by conventional or high protein canola meal in diets for growing-finishing pigs without affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics. Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the optimum inclusion rate of high-protein and conventional meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs.

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