Corn germ

Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles

Lee, J. W., D. Y. Kil, B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2426-2437. Link to full text (.pdf)

Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality

Lee, J. W., F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4933-4942. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Inclusion of corn germ and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs

Lee, J. W. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Inclusion of corn germ and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition or pork fat quality

Corn germ is a co-product of the wet milling industry that is available for use in swine diets to partially replace the more expensive corn grain. Results of arecent experiment indicated that including 15% corn germ in diets containing 30% DDGS had no negative effects on pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. However, it is not known if greater quantities of corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to determine if greater levels of corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs without negatively affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, muscle and fat quality, or belly quality. The experiment also determined if the presence of DDGS in the diets influences the responses to the inclusion of corn germ.

A total of 280 pigs with an initial body weight of 42.5 ± 4.6 kg were divided into ten pens and fed one of eight dietary treatments. Corn germ was included at 0, 10, 20, or 30% in diets containing either 0 or 30% DDGS. The experiment lasted for a total of 83 days. Grower diets were providedfor the first 28 days, early finisher diets for the next 28 days, and late finisher diets for the final 27 days. At the conclusion of the experiment, the pig in each pen that had a body weight that was closest to the average body weight for the pen was harvested and its carcass characteristics were determined.

Growth performance

The inclusion of graded levels of corn germ in diets without or with DDGS had no effect on average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain:feed, or final body weight during the growing, early finishing, late finishing, or the entire experimental period (Table 1).

Pigs fed diets containing no DDGS had a greater (P < 0.01) average daily gain and average daily feed intake than pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS during the growing and late finishing periods as well as the overall experimental period. In addition, average daily gain was greater (P < 0.01) in the pigs fed no DDGS during the early finishing period. The body weight of the pigs fed no DDGS was greater (P < 0.001) than for pigs fed DDGS at the end of each phase and at the conclusion of the experiment. Average gain:feed values were the same for pigs fed diets without or with DDGS.

Carcass composition and muscle and backfat quality

Inclusion of increasing levels of corn germ to diets containing either 0 or 30% DDGS had no effect on live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat, loin muscle (LM) area, or fat free lean percentage (Table 2). No interaction between corn germ and DDGS was observed for any of the carcass composition parameters. Pigs fed diets without DDGS had greater (P = 0.05) backfat than pigs fed diets with 30% DDGS, but all other carcass composition measurements were the same for diets without and with DDGS.

There was no effect of inclusion rates of corn germ on most muscle quality measures: marbling, firmness, pH, drip loss, or the subjective color or a* color value of LM. This was true regardless of the level of DDGS in the diet. As graded levels of corn germ were added to the diets without DDGS, there was a decrease (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) in LM L* value and a trend (linear, P = 0.06) for decreased LM b* values, but this was not the case for diets containing 30% DDGS. LM marbling and firmness were reduced (P < 0.05) in diets containing 30% DDGS as compared with diets containing no DDGS, while all other muscle quality measures were the same for diets containing 0 or 30% DDGS.

Inclusion of corn germ did not affect backfat a* and b* values in pigs fed diets without or with DDGS, or backfat L* values in pigs fed diets with DDGS. However, there was a tendency (linear, P = 0.06) for decreased backfat L* values as corn germ was added to diets containing no DDGS. Backfat L* values for pigs fed 0% DDGS were greater (P < 0.001) than the backfat L* values for pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS.

Belly quality

In diets containing no DDGS, inclusion of increasing amounts of corn germ increased belly length (quadratic, P < 0.05) and decreased (linear, P< 0.001) belly flop distance (Table 3). In diets containing 30% DDGS, inclusion of increasing amounts of corn germ did not affect belly length or belly flop distance.  Belly width and belly weight were not affected by addition of corn germ to the diets regardless of the inclusion level of DDGS.

The inclusion of DDGS did not affect belly length or belly width, but did reduce belly flop distance (P < 0.001). As noted above, this reduction in belly firmness was not ameliorated by the addition of corn germ. There was also a tendency (P = 0.06) for reduced belly weight in pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS compared with pigs fed no DDGS, but this is likely a result of the reduction in live bodyweight of the DDGS-fed pigs compared with pigs fed no DDGS.

Key points

  • Corn germ has no detrimental effects on pig growth performance, carcass composition, or carcass quality.
  • For all growth performance measures, and most carcass composition and belly quality measures, the level of DDGS in the diet has no effect on the response of pigs to increasing inclusion rates of corn germ.
  • Feeding corn germ to finishing pigs may result in reduced belly firmness even if no DDGS is included in the diet. Feeding corn germ also does not ameliorate the reduction of belly firmness in pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS.

Table 1. Growth performance of pigs fed diets containing graded levels of corn germ (CG) and either 0 or 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

 

Diet

P-value

 

0% DDGS

30% DDGS

 

0% DDGS

30% DDGS

Item

0% CG

10% CG

20% CG

30% CG

0% CG

10% CG

20% CG

30% CG

DDGS

Corn germ

DDGS × CG

Linear

Quad.

Linear

Quad.

Growing period

  Initial BW, kg

40.97

40.99

40.80

41.21

41.42

40.86

40.93

41.11

0.87

0.96

0.98

0.88

0.80

0.80

0.63

  ADG, kg

0.97

1.00

1.04

1.02

0.91

0.93

0.92

0.91

<0.001

0.46

0.47

0.07

0.31

0.95

0.70

  ADFI, kg

2.07

2.22

2.18

2.05

1.87

2.00

1.89

1.95

<0.01

0.49

0.81

0.82

0.15

0.75

0.67

  G:F, kg/kg

0.48

0.46

0.48

0.51

0.51

0.47

0.49

0.47

0.91

0.65

0.57

0.37

0.33

0.38

0.78

  Final BW, kg

68.26

68.97

69.90

69.76

66.94

66.79

66.57

66.67

<0.001

0.90

0.72

0.21

0.66

0.81

0.89

Early finishing period

  ADG, kg

1.03

1.00

1.04

0.97

0.96

0.95

0.96

0.94

<0.01

0.42

0.75

0.24

0.48

0.85

0.95

  ADFI, kg

2.65

2.73

2.63

2.64

2.56

2.48

2.52

2.50

0.14

1.00

0.93

0.80

0.80

0.82

0.83

  G:F, kg/kg

0.39

0.38

0.41

0.38

0.38

0.39

0.39

0.39

0.90

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.80

0.81

0.85

  Final BW, kg

97.06

96.96

98.90

96.87

93.70

93.26

93.37

93.10

<0.001

0.81

0.83

0.81

0.45

0.77

0.95

Late finishing period

  ADG, kg

1.09

1.00

1.02

1.02

0.96

0.94

0.99

0.97

<0.001

0.18

0.30

0.14

0.06

0.65

0.98

  ADFI, kg

3.39

3.39

3.32

3.33

3.09

3.14

3.19

3.10

<0.001

0.94

0.76

0.51

0.94

0.82

0.38

  G:F, kg/kg

0.32

0.30

0.31

0.31

0.31

0.30

0.31

0.31

0.91

0.22

0.91

0.59

0.14

0.76

0.37

  Final BW, kg

126.43

123.88

126.36

124.51

119.74

118.70

120.10

119.19

<0.001

0.51

0.95

0.63

0.82

0.97

0.97

Entire period

  ADG, kg

1.03

1.00

1.03

1.00

0.94

0.94

0.95

0.94

<0.001

0.42

0.86

0.54

0.91

0.92

0.83

  ADFI, kg

2.82

2.90

2.83

2.79

2.62

2.65

2.65

2.62

<0.001

0.66

0.89

0.53

0.32

1.00

0.62

  G:F, kg/kg

0.36

0.35

0.36

0.37

0.36

0.35

0.36

0.36

0.71

0.22

0.75

0.43

0.16

0.99

0.73

 

Table 2. Carcass composition, muscle quality, and backfat quality of pigs fed diets containing graded levels of corn germ (CG) and either 0 or 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

 

Diet

P-value

 

0% DDGS

30% DDGS

 

0% DDGS

30% DDGS

Item

0% CG

10% CG

20% CG

30% CG

0% CG

10% CG

20% CG

30% CG

DDGS

CG

DDGS x CG

Linear

Quad.

Linear

Quad.

Carcass composition

  Live wt, kg

121.6

118.4

122.5

118.3

116.4

114.6

114.1

115.6

<0.01

0.69

0.65

0.58

0.81

0.78

0.49

  Hot carcass wt, kg

96.1

93.7

96.8

93.4

92.0

91.0

89.8

91.4

<0.01

0.78

0.56

0.55

0.78

0.74

0.49

  Dressing, %

79.1

79.2

79.0

78.9

79.0

79.4

78.7

79.1

0.90

0.63

0.76

0.69

0.85

0.78

0.96

  Backfat, cm

2.0

1.9

2.1

2.1

1.6

2.0

1.8

1.7

0.05

0.88

0.19

0.61

0.56

0.81

0.11

  LM area, sq. cm

56.1

53.2

53.0

54.9

53.1

53.2

51.1

53.8

0.18

0.34

0.81

0.58

0.13

1.00

0.40

  FFL,1 %

54.7

55.1

53.8

54.8

56.1

54.4

55.1

56.1

0.16

0.72

0.58

0.63

0.87

0.83

0.16

Muscle quality

  Subjective color2

2.1

2.3

2.4

2.2

2.5

2.1

2.2

2.2

1.00

0.79

0.11

0.52

0.15

0.20

0.15

  Marbling3

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.2

0.02

0.78

0.97

0.56

1.00

0.56

0.51

  Firmness4

2.8

2.9

3.1

3.0

2.5

2.7

2.4

2.1

<0.01

0.61

0.27

0.38

0.62

0.10

0.22

  24-h pH, LM

5.5

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.7

5.6

5.6

5.6

0.31

0.84

0.06

0.12

0.27

0.30

0.15

  48-h drip loss, %

5.9

3.8

4.0

3.6

4.6

5.0

4.5

5.6

0.40

0.71

0.32

0.11

0.35

0.52

0.68

  LM color, L*5

51.3

47.0

47.6

47.9

46.6

48.4

48.3

47.8

0.29

0.50

<0.01

0.02

0.01

0.38

0.24

  LM color, a*5

7.9

8.2

7.9

7.2

8.1

7.9

8.1

8.0

0.60

0.81

0.79

0.29

0.37

0.97

0.95

  LM color, b*5

3.7

2.7

2.6

2.3

3.0

3.2

3.2

2.9

0.53

0.53

0.52

0.06

0.52

0.89

0.61

Backfat color

  Fat color, L*5

75.0

73.9

74.4

73.7

73.1

73.2

72.1

72.9

<0.001

0.16

0.12

0.06

0.54

0.35

0.36

  Fat color, a*5

4.0

4.3

3.5

3.8

4.2

3.5

4.2

3.8

0.90

0.84

0.18

0.37

0.91

0.79

0.65

  Fat color, b*5

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.8

4.3

4.2

3.9

4.0

0.19

0.63

0.97

0.56

0.97

0.28

0.67

1FFL, % = as calculated from NPPC (1999): pounds fat free lean = 8.588 – (21.896 × 10th rib fat depth, in.) + (0.465 × HCW, lb.) + (3.005 × 10th rib loin muscle area, sq. in.), (pounds FFL / HCW) × 100 = %FFL.

2National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) color scale (1 to 6): 1 = pale pinkish gray to white; 6 = dark purplish red.

3NPPC marbling scale (1 to 10): 1 = devoid; 10 = abundant.

4NPPC firmness scale (1 to 5): 1 = very soft; 5 = very firm and dry.

5As measured on a Minolta Chromameter.

 

Table 3. Belly quality of pigs fed diets containing graded levels of corn germ (CG) and either 0 or 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

 

Diet

P-value

 

0% DDGS

30% DDGS

 

0% DDGS

30% DDGS

Item

0% CG

10% CG

20% CG

30% CG

0% CG

10% CG

20% CG

30% CG

DDGS

CG

DDGS × CG

Linear

Quad.

Linear

Quad.

Belly length, cm

57.05

59.21

58.75

56.51

57.23

56.69

56.44

56.67

0.12

0.56

0.36

0.65

0.03

0.67

0.71

Belly width, cm

22.91

23.70

23.93

23.44

24.18

24.39

24.13

23.50

0.31

0.81

0.85

0.59

0.40

0.50

0.58

Belly wt, kg

5.10

5.36

5.51

5.16

5.11

5.22

4.92

4.88

0.06

0.51

0.44

0.71

0.11

0.24

0.70

Flop distance1, cm

17.37

14.28

11.66

9.98

8.10

9.45

7.37

6.22

<0.001

0.01

0.26

<0.001

0.64

0.26

0.42

1A flop test was performed by draping a centered belly lengthwise over a suspended, stainless steel rod with the skin side down. The distance from skin surface to skin surface was measured at a standardized point, 10 cm down from the stainless steel rod.

This research report is based on unpublished research by J. W. Lee, F. McKeith, and H. H. Stein.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of including tallow, palm kernel oil, corn germ, or glycerol to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on pork fat quality of growing-finishing pigs

Lee, J. W., B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Effects of including tallow, palm kernel oil, corn germ, or glycerol to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on pork fat quality of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):679 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-­products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-­products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):441 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Effects of corn germ, tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol on fat quality of pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles

Lee, J. W., B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Effects of corn germ, tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol on fat quality of pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):98 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Negative effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on fat quality of pigs are not ameliorated by addition of corn germ, tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be fed in swine diets at an inclusion rate of up to 30% without negatively affecting pig growth performance. However, DDGS contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which may promote deposition of unsaturated dietary fatty acids in adipose tissue. Consequently, inclusion of DDGS at more than 20% has been shown to result in increased fat iodine values (IV) and soft belly production.  The disadvantages of this decrease in fat quality include reduced shelf life, increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, and reduced belly sliceability.

An experiment was performed to determine if the addition of different sources of saturated fat would improve belly fat quality in pigs fed a DDGS-based diet. In addition, the hypothesis that the iodine value product (IVP) of the diet can be used to predict backfat IV and belly fat IV of pigs fed diets containing DDGS was tested.

Belly fat quality

A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts were used in the experiment. The pigs were fed one of six diets. The control diet was a corn-soybean meal-based diet that contained no DDGS and no added fat.  A second diet contained corn, soybean meal, and DDGS and the remaining  four diets were similar to the second diet with the exception that they contained 15% corn germ, 3% tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol.

Fat quality was measured using a belly flop test. In this test, the belly is draped lengthwise, skin side down, over a suspended  metal rod. The distance from skin surface to skin surface is then measured at a standardized point 10 cm down from the top of the rod. A larger flop distance indicates a firmer belly.

As expected, pigs fed the control diet had firmer bellies than pigs fed the DDGS-containing diets (Table 1). No difference in flop distance was observed among pigs fed the diets containing DDGS. Addition of corn germ, tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to DDGS-containing diets did not affect belly softness.

Predicting backfat and belly fat iodine values

The IV of ingredients, diets, belly fat, and backfat were calculated based on fatty acid analysis. The IVP of each ingredient was calculated by multiplying its IV by the lipid concentration (%), and then by 0.10.

The IVP of the diets was calculated using 2 different equations. Dietary IVP 1 was determined as follows:

Dietary IVP 1 = IVP of each ingredient × concentration of each ingredient in the diet

Dietary IVP 2 was determined using the following equation (Madsen et al., 1992):

Dietary IVP 2 =analyzed IV of diet oil × analyzed dietary lipid (%) × 0.10.

The IVP of each diet calculated by each of the 2 procedures wasthen used to predict the IV of backfat using the following equations:

IVbackfat = 47.1 + 0.14 × dietary IVP / day (Madsen et al., 1992).

IVbackfat = 0.315 × dietary IVP + 52.4 (Boyd et al., 1997).

The use of the Madsen and Boyd equations with dietary IVP 1 showed a tendency for a positive correlation (r = 0.79, P = 0.06). There was no correlation between actual and predicted backfat IV using either equation with dietary IVP 2, nor was either equation able to predict belly fat IV.

Using dietary IVP 1 and dietary IVP 2, the relationship between the calculated IVP of the diet and backfat/belly fat IV was calculated using regression equations.Dietary IVP 1 explained 63% of the variability (P < 0.06) in analyzed backfat IV. Dietary IVP 2 explained 52% of the variability (P = 0.11) in analyzed backfat IV. Belly fat IV was not explained using either dietary IVP 1 or dietary IVP 2.

Key points

  • Use of distillers dried grains with solubles at inclusion rates of more than 20% can lead to soft belly production.
  • Addition of corn germ, tallow, palm kernel oil or glycerol did not ameliorate the problem with soft belly production. No difference in belly quality was observed among pigs fed any of the DDGS-containing diets.
  • Iodine values for belly fat cannot be predicted from dietary IVP values.
  • Dietary IVP is only a weak predictor of backfat IV.

Table 1. Belly quality of pigs fed experimental diets

 

Diet

Sex

Item

Control

DDGS

Corn germ

Tallow

Palm kernel oil

Glycerol

P-value

Barrows

Gilts

P-value

Belly length, cm

63.6

61.9

61.7

62.1

60.4

62

0.52

62.24

61.64

0.45

Belly width, cm

23.7

24.3

24.6

24.6

24.6

24.5

0.81

24.66

24.07

0.16

Belly wt, kg

8.15

8.2

8.53

8.27

8.24

8.24

0.83

8.59

7.96

<0.001

Flop distance, cm

18.08a

9.71b

9.59b

10.02b

8.85b

10.28b

<0.001

13.16

9.01

<0.001

a,b Values within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05).

 

Table 2. Iodine value (10 g/100 g) of backfat and belly fat

 

Diet

Sex

Item

Control

DDGS

Corn germ

Tallow

PKO

Glycerol

P-value

Barrows

Gilts

P-value

Backfat

72.73

78.59

78.61

76.6

76.61

75.16

0.61

74.38

78.38

0.07

Belly fat

74.93

79.45

79.07

75.41

75.66

76.96

0.38

75.42

78.4

0.05

 

 

Figure 1. Relationship between the calculated iodine value product (IVP) of the diet and backfat IV

Figure 1. Relationship between the calculated iodine value product (IVP) of the diet and backfat IV

 

Figure 2. Correlations (r = 0.79; P = 0.06) between actual and predicted backfat IV calculated using the Madsen and Boyd equations and dietary IVP 1 values

Figure 2. Correlations (r = 0.79; P = 0.06) between actual and predicted backfat IV calculated using the Madsen and Boyd equations and dietary IVP 1 values

 

This research report is based on unpublished research by J. W. Lee, D. Y. Kil, B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein.

Publication Type: 

Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Corn co-products as replacements for high-priced corn and soybean meal

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

February, 2011

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the most common co-product generated from the ethanol industry and the production in the US of DDGS is now greater than the production of soybean meal. While DDGS is an excellent feed ingredient that in most cases can be included in diets fed to all groups of pigs at levels of at least 20 to 30%, there are also other corn co-products that may be used in diets fed to pigs.

From the ethanol industry, there is production of high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and corn germ if the ethanol plant is using front-end fractionation. Both of these products are excellent feed ingredients and HP DDG may replace all the soybean meal in diets fed to pigs from they are approximately 40 kg and for younger pigs, HP DDG may be used in concentrations of 20 to 30%. At these inclusion levels, pig performance will usually be maintained provided that diets are formulated in such a way that they are balanced for indispensable amino acids. This often means that diets need to be supplemented with synthetic sources of lysine and tryptophan.

Corn germ contains approximately 18% crude fat and may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs by up to 30%. At this inclusion rate, pigs usually have great performance and feed intake is often improved when corn germ is included in the diet.

Corn gluten meal and corn gluten feed are co-products of the wet milling industry. Corn gluten meal contains approximately 60% crude protein and may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs by 20 to 25%. As is the case when other corn proteins are used, diets containing corn gluten meal need to be fortified with synthetic sources of lysine and tryptophan to balance all the indispensable amino acids.

Corn gluten feed is a high fiber ingredient that usually contains around 22% crude protein. There are no good data investigating consequences of including corn gluten feed in diets fed to pigs, but the high fiber concentration limits the inclusion levels. At this point it is, therefore, recommended that corn gluten feed is included by less than 20% in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs and by less than 10% in diets fed to weanling pigs.

Corn germ meal is a co-product from both the dry-milling industry and the wet milling industry and consists of the defatted corn germ that is produced after the corn oil has been removed from corn germ. Corn germ meal, therefore, contains only around 2% crude fat and is very high in fiber and it is recommended that no more than 20% is included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs and no more than 10% in diets fed to weanling pigs. It is important to note the difference between corn germ and corn germ meal – corn germ is the high-fat co-product that has an energy content that is close to that of corn. Corn germ meal, in contrast, is a low fat product that contains much less energy than corn.

Hominy feed is a co-product of the corn-grits industry. The concentration of crude protein in hominy feed is low (less than 10%), but there is usually between 40 and 50% starch left in hominy feed. It is, therefore, possible to replace a large portion of the corn in diets fed to swine if hominy feed is used, and inclusion levels of up to 50% may be used in diets fed to all categories of pigs.

Thus, as the costs of traditional feed ingredients are increasing, there are a number of alternatives that may be used to help reduce diet costs. A summary of recommended inclusion levels for these co-products is available in Table 1.

Table 1. Recommended inclusion of corn co-products in diets fed to weanling and growing-finishing pigs

 

Maximum dietary inclusion, %

Ingredient

Weanling pigs

Growing-finishing pigs

  DDGS

30

30

  HP DDG

30

40

  Corn germ

15

30

  Corn gluten meal

15

25

  Corn gluten feed

10

20

  Corn germ meal

10

20

  Hominy feed

40

50

Authors: 
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Effects of co-products from the ethanol industry on pig performance and carcass composition

Widmer, M. R., L. M. McGinnis, D. M. Wulf, and H. H. Stein. 2007. Effects of co-products from the ethanol industry on pig performance and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):437 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Widmer, M. R., L. M. McGinnis, D. M. Wulf, and H. H. Stein. 2007. Effects of co-products from the ethanol industry on pork quality and palatability. Reciprocal Meats Conference. SD. June, 2007 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Widmer, M. R., L. M. McGinnis, D. M. Wulf, and H. H. Stein. 2008. Effects of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles, high protein distillers dried grains, and corn germ to growing-finishing pigs on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1819-1831. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy, amino acid, and phosphorus digestibility of high protein distillers dried grain and corn germ fed to growing pigs

Widmer, M. R., L. M. McGinnis, and H. H. Stein. 2007. Energy, amino acid, and phosphorus digestibility of high protein distillers dried grain and corn germ fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2994-3003. Link to full text (.pdf)

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