Corn germ meal

Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains

Jaworski, N. W., H. N. Lærke, K. E. Bach Knudsen, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains. J. Anim. Sci. 93:1103-1113. Link to abstract

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5326-5335. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Phosphorus digestibility in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the use of corn in the production of food for humans. Only limited published information is available on the digestibility of phosphorus in corn co-products derived from the human food industry.

Phosphorus from plant sources is often bound to phytate, which decreases the availability of the phosphorus to the pigs because pigs do not produce the enzyme phytase. The addition of microbial phytase to diets containing corn and soybean meal increases phosphorus digestibility in these ingredients. However, no data have been published on the effect of adding phytase to diets containing hominy feed,  bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal.

Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values to the values obtained for corn and DDGS. The effect of the addition of microbial phytase to the diets on the digestibility of phosphorus in the experimental ingredients was also measured.

A total of 84 barrows with an initial body weight of 13.7 kg were fed one of 14 experimental diets. Seven diets were formulated to contain corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal as the sole source of phosphorus. The other seven diets were similar to the initial seven, with the exception that of 500 phytase units (FTU) of  microbial phytase per kilogram were added to each diet.

Variability in digestibility of P among ingredients

Values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus were greatest (P < 0.01) in pigs fed DDGS, corn gluten meal, and corn gluten feed (Table 1). ATTD and STTD of phosphorus in bakery meal and corn germ meal were less than in DDGS, corn gluten meal, and corn gluten feed. Values of ATTD and STTD of phosphorus in hominy feed were less than in bakery meal, but did not differ from values in corn germ meal. ATTD and STTD of phosphorus in corn did not differ from hominy feed, and was less than in all other ingredients.

Variability in phytate P and response to phytase

Due to differences in composition and processing, different corn co-products contain different proportions of phytate-bound phosphorus (Table 2). The addition of phytase to diets whose ingredients contain relatively large amounts of phytate-bound phosphorus is expected to increase phosphorus digestibility. If, however, the ingredients contain relatively little phytate-bound phosphorus, the addition of phytase to the diet is not expected to affect phosphorus digestibility.

The addition of microbial phytase to the corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal diets increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of phosphorus. Addition of phytase to the DDGS and corn gluten feed diets did not affect the ATTD and STTD of phosphorus, due to the relatively low proportion of phosphorus in these ingredients that is bound to phytate. Adding phytase also did not affect the ATTD and STTD of phosphorus in diets containing corn gluten meal.

Key points

  • DDGS, corn gluten meal, and corn gluten feed have greater values for ATTD and STTD of phosphorus than corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal.
  • Adding microbial phytase to diets containing corn, hominy feed, bakery meal and corn germ meal increases ATTD and STTD of phosphorus.
  • The addition of phytase to diets containing DDGS and corn gluten feed does not affect ATTD or STTD of phosphorus, due to the relatively low proportion of phosphorus in these ingredients that is bound to phytate. Adding phytase also does not affect the ATTD and STTD of phosphorus in diets containing corn gluten meal.

Table 1. Phosphorus content and apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of P in corn and corn co-products

Ingredient

Corn

Hominy feed

Bakery meal

DDGS

Corn gluten meal

Corn gluten feed

Corn germ meal

P, %

0.19

0.7

0.48

0.82

0.57

0.87

0.87

ATTD of P, %

36.4d

41.0cd

54.9b

72.2a

71.1a

80.7a

49.0bc

STTD of P, %

42.5d

43.6cd

58.6b

76.5a

80.0a

84.6a

53.2bc

a-dWithin a row, means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).

Table 2. Effect of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in corn and corn co-products

Ingredient

Corn

Hominy feed

Bakery meal

DDGS

Corn gluten meal

Corn gluten feed

Corn germ meal

Phytate P, %

0.16

0.58

0.22

0.12

0.48

0.2

0.58

Phytate P, % of total P

81.63

83.39

45.83

14.79

83.61

23.01

66.77

Non- phytate P, %

0.03

0.12

0.26

0.7

0.09

0.67

0.29

Non- phytate P, % of total P

18.37

16.61

54.18

85.21

16.39

76.99

33.23

Added phytase, FTU

 0

500

0

500

0

500

0

500

0

500

0

500

0

500

ATTD of P, %

36.4b

56.1a

41.0b

57.6a

54.9b

67.5a

72.2

78.5

71.1

77.6

80.7

83.1

49.0b

64.4a

STTD of P, %

42.5b

64.1a

43.6b

60.1a

58.6b

71.1a

76.5

82.8

80.4

87.4

84.6

87.1

53.2b

68.3a

a-bFor each ingredient, means within a row without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).

 

This report is based on unpublished research by O. J. Rojas and H. H. Stein.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

Experimental design

Fifty six barrows with an average initial body weight of 14.6 kg were allotted to a randomized complete block design and fed one of seven diets. The first diet was a basal corn-based diet. Four additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal. The final two diets were based on hominy feed and bakery meal.  Fecal and urine samples were collected and used to calculate the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in each of the seven diets. For corn, hominy feed, and bakery meal, values for digestible and metabolizable energy were calculated directly from the diets in which these ingredients provided all the energy. However, for the diets containing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal, values for digestible and metabolizable energy were calculated by subtracting the contribution from corn to the total energy in the diets and then assuming the remaining energy was provided by DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal.

The winner: corn gluten meal

The ATTD of gross energy was greatest (P < 0.01) in corn (89.4%) and corn gluten meal (92.5%) (Table 1). The ATTD of gross energy in bakery meal (88.2%) did not differ from that of corn, and was less than that of corn gluten meal. Energy digestibility in hominy feed (78.7%) was less than that of bakery meal, and DDGS (72.9%), corn gluten feed (70.6%), and corn germ meal (73.9%)had the least (P < 0.01) values for energy digestibility.

Corn gluten meal contained the greatest (P < 0.01) concentration of digestible energy at 5,379 kcal/kg of dry matter. Corn (4,032 kcal/kg), bakery meal (3,951 kcal/kg), and DDGS (4,062 kcal/kg) contained less digestible energy than corn gluten meal. The concentration of digestible energy in hominy feed (3,819 kcal/kg) was less (P < 0.01) than that of DDGS, but did not differ from that of corn and bakery meal. Corn gluten feed (3,553 kcal/kg) and corn germ meal (3,437 kcal/kg) contained the least (P < 0.01) digestible energy.

Corn gluten meal also contained the greatest (P < 0.01) concentration of metabolizable energy at 4,400 kcal/kg dry matter. Corn (3,891 kcal/kg) and DDGS (3,694 kcal/kg) contained the next greatest concentrations of metabolizable energy. Hominy feed (3,675 kcal/kg) and bakery meal (3,655 kcal/kg) did not differ from DDGS, but contained less (P < 0.01) metabolizable energy than corn. Corn gluten feed (3,169 kcal/kg) and corn germ meal (3,150 kcal/kg) contained the least (P < 0.01) metabolizable energy on a dry matter basis.

Key points

  • Hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal are co-products of the human food industries that may be of use as alternative feed ingredients for swine.
  • Of the tested co-products, corn gluten meal has the greatest value for apparent total tract digestibility of energy. Energy digestibility for all tested co-products was greater than 70%.
  • Corn gluten meal contained the greatest concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy of the ingredients tested. None of the other food industry co-products contained more digestible or metabolizable energy in kcal/kg than corn or DDGS.

 

Table 1. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, as-fed basis

 

Diet

 

Item

Corn

Hominy feed

Bakery meal

DDGS

Corn gluten meal

Corn gluten feed

Corn germ meal

P-value

  GE, kcal/kg

3,924

4,407

4,098

4,769

5,102

4,324

4,184

N/A

  ATTD of GE, %

89.4ab

78.7c

88.2b

72.9d

92.5a

70.6d

73.9d

< 0.01

  DE, kcal/kg

3,498bc

3,399c

3,495bc

3,556b

4,896a

3,051d

3,073d

< 0.01

  DE, kcal/kg of DM

4,032b

3,819c

3,951bc

4,062b

5,379a

3,553d

3,437d

< 0.01

  ME, kcal/kg

3,375b

3,271b

3,233b

3,235b

4,006a

2,721c

2,817c

< 0.01

  ME, kcal/kg of DM

3,891b

3,675c

3,655c

3,694bc

4,400a

3,169d

3,150d

< 0.01

a-dMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).

This report is based on unpublished research by O. J. Rojas and H. H. Stein.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:4109-4115. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rising costs of traditional swine feeds are causing many producers to look for alternative feedstuffs to deliver nutritional value at a lower cost. The corn milling and fermentation industries, and the human food industry, create co-products which can be fed to livestock.  One of these, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), has been found to be suitable for inclusion in swine diets up to 30%. Other co-products have not been as extensively studied. This experiment was performed to measure the apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, hominy feed, and bakery meal in growing pigs and to compare these values to the values observed for DDGS and corn.

Alternative feedstuffs

Hominy feed is a co-product from the dry milling industry, and consists of the hull and starchy endosperm of corn kernels. Corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal are co-products from the wet milling process, in which corn is steeped in water before being separated into its components. Corn germ meal consists of the germ after extraction of the oil. Corn gluten meal consists mainly of the gluten portion of the kernel, after the germ and bran have been removed and the starch has been mechanically separated out. Corn gluten feed consists of the bran combined with condensed solubles from the steepwater. Bakery meal is produced from waste wheat products, pasta, snack foods, baked goods, and breakfast cereals. 

AA digestibility

Eight diets were prepared. Seven of the diets contained commercial yellow dent corn, DDGS, hominy feed, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or bakery meal as the sole source of protein and amino acids. The eighth diet contained no protein and was used to measure the basal endogenous loss of protein and amino acids. Ileal digesta were collected and analyzed for protein content, and SID was calculated by subtracting endogenous loss from the total ileal protein/amino acid output.

Corn gluten meal had the greatest (P < 0.01) AID for crude protein and all indispensable amino acids of all ingredients used in this experiment, including corn and DDGS. The mean AID for indispensable amino acids in corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, hominy feed, and bakery meal did not differ from corn or DDGS.

The SID of crude protein was greater (P < 0.01) in corn and corn gluten meal than in all other ingredients (Table 2). The SID of crude protein in DDGS, bakery meal, corn germ meal, corn gluten feed, and hominy meal did not differ from each other.

The SID of lysine in corn gluten meal and corn gluten feed was greater (P < 0.01) than in DDGS, bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed, and was the same as that of corn.  For all indispensable amino acids except argininine, the SID values in corn gluten meal did not differ from those of corn. SID of indispensable amino acids in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed was in most cases less than that in corn, but the same or greater than that in DDGS.

Key points

  • While values for digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn DDGS are known, digestibility values for other corn co-products have yet to be determined.
  • For most amino acids, SID in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed is comparable to or greater than that of DDGS.
  • With the exception of arginine, crude protein and amino acid SID of corn gluten meal is comparable to corn.



 Table 1. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

 

Dietary treatments

 

Item

Corn

DDGS

BM

CGluM

CGF

CGerM

HF

SEM

P-value

CP, %

59.0b

53.8bc

54.1bc

77.5a

52.1bc

55.2b

47.5c

2.36

< 0.01

Indispensable AA, %

  Arg

74.1c

65.5d

72.3c

83.9a

71.7c

81.1ab

75.8bc

1.77

< 0.01

  His

74.9ab

70.3bc

66.1c

79.6a

70.2bc

73.5b

72.1bc

1.97

< 0.01

  Ile

72.1b

69.7bc

65.4cd

84.2a

70.7bc

72.6b

62.2d

2.14

< 0.01

  Leu

83.3b

82.1b

74.8c

90.4a

78.2bc

76.6c

79.3bc

1.65

< 0.01

  Lys

58.0bc

39.2d

39.7d

73.6a

64.0ab

64.4ab

50.6cd

3.61

< 0.01

  Met

82.3b

79.3bc

73.5d

89.9a

75.3cd

78.6bc

73.1d

1.68

< 0.01

  Phe

79.6b

77.2bc

73.4c

88.0a

75.9bc

78.8b

73.0c

1.78

< 0.01

  Thr

57.8cde

60.6bcd

50.6e

78.6a

68.4b

63.8bc

51.0de

2.87

< 0.01

  Trp

64.9c

75.6b

75.9b

86.8a

80.0b

76.5b

66.2c

1.91

< 0.01

  Val

70.3bc

68.4bcd

63.3d

81.9a

68.7bcd

72.0b

62.8cd

2.2

< 0.01

Mean

74.5b

70.8b

71.3b

86.0a

72.0b

74.1b

68.7b

2.27

< 0.01

Dispensable AA, %

  Ala

72.9b

70.1b

63.0c

84.9a

69.5b

68.7bc

67.4bc

2.25

< 0.01

  Asp

62.7b

60.7b

52.8c

79.2a

58.0bc

60.8b

57.6bc

2.57

< 0.01

  Cys

69.8b

67.6bc

62.3cd

78.0a

58.3d

57.4d

67.6bc

2.27

< 0.01

  Glu

81.2ab

77.6bc

78.2bc

86.1a

72.1d

73.8cd

76.9bcd

1.64

< 0.01

  Gly

30.9

24.6

41

39.2

36.4

42.9

35.3

5.78

0.27

  Pro

6.4ab

-20.6bc

45.8a

53.2a

7.3ab

-44.5c

6.6abc

17

< 0.01

  Ser

70.6b

68.5b

65.5b

86.0a

66.6b

67.7b

69.9b

2.05

< 0.01

  Tyr

77.6b

76.5bc

71.8c

88.0a

74.9bc

75.2bc

70.7c

1.83

< 0.01

Mean

61.7bc

53.6c

68.1b

77.5a

55.5c

53.9c

58.5bc

3.68

< 0.01

a-eMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).

 

Table 2. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

 

Dietary treatments

 

Item

Corn

DDGS

BM

CGluM

CGF

CGerM

HF

SEM

P-value

CP, %

89.1a

70.5b

72.5b

85.5a

70.9b

69.5b

74.8b

2.51

< 0.01

Indispensable AA, %

  Arg

100.1a

81.3d

91.5bc

93.7bc

90.4c

89.7c

96.3ab

1.77

< 0.01

  His

83.7a

75.5cd

72.5d

82.8ab

75.9cd

77.6bcd

79.8abc

1.97

< 0.01

  Ile

80.9ab

74.7bc

71.0c

86.4a

76.6bc

76.7bc

70.8c

2.14

< 0.01

  Leu

88.0ab

84.8bc

78.2e

91.3a

82.2cde

79.8de

83.8bcd

1.66

< 0.01

  Lys

69.2ab

46.0d

48.4cd

78.7a

68.8ab

68.4b

58.8bc

3.61

< 0.01

  Met

86.2ab

81.6bc

76.5d

90.6a

78.8cd

80.8cd

77.0cd

1.68

< 0.01

  Phe

85.9ab

81.1bc

77.7c

89.4a

81.2bc

82.0bc

79.2c

1.78

< 0.01

  Thr

74.9ab

69.5bc

62.1c

83.5a

75.2ab

71.3b

65.8bc

2.87

< 0.01

  Trp

83.9bc

82.6bc

83.1bc

91.8a

87.5ab

81.4c

82.4bc

1.91

< 0.01

  Val

80.1ab

73.9bc

69.8c

84.9a

74.9bc

76.0bc

71.7c

2.2

< 0.01

Mean

84.9ab

76.7c

78.5bc

88.6a

78.7bc

78.9bc

78.0bc

2.27

< 0.01

Dispensable AA, %

  Ala

86.6ab

77.8c

73.0c

87.8a

77.9c

75.8c

79.3bc

2.25

< 0.01

  Asp

77.2ab

68.1c

62.2c

83.2a

66.4c

66.4c

68.8bc

2.57

< 0.01

  Cys

79.6ab

73.4bc

69.0cd

81.0a

65.2d

64.1d

76.1abc

2.27

< 0.01

  Glu

87.7a

81.8bc

81.8bc

87.6a

77.1c

77.8bc

82.9ab

1.64

< 0.01

  Gly

107.4a

64.8d

88.7bc

66.5d

76.2cd

68.6d

97.1ab

5.78

< 0.01

  Pro

193.3a

86.4c

158.2ab

97.2c

130.9bc

98.9c

190.2a

14.51

< 0.01

  Ser

85.1ab

76.9cd

75.6d

89.7a

77.1cd

75.1d

82.4bc

2.05

< 0.01

  Tyr

84.8ab

81.1bc

77.0c

89.6a

81.0bc

79.4bc

77.8c

1.83

< 0.01

Mean

103.3a

77.8d

94.1ab

83.6bc

83.5cd

76.2d

95.6ab

3.7

< 0.01

a-eMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.05).

 

This research report is based on unpublished research by F. N. Almeida and H. H. Stein.

Authors: 
Publication Type: