Dietary fiber

Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on the apparent total tract digestibility of energy, DM, and nutrients by growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on the apparent total tract digestibility of energy, DM, and nutrients by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2265–2277. Link to abstract

The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high-fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong,  and H. H. Stein. 2018. The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high-fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:1860-1868. Link to abstract

Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase

Abelilla, J. J. and H. H. Stein. 2018. Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):81 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Fiber in feed ingredients used in diets for pigs is mainly used for energy, which is synthesized by microbes in the hindgut of the pig and absorbed in the form of short chained fatty acids. To estimate the energy that a pig can obtain in a particular fibrous ingredient, a digestibility experiment is usually conducted and the digestible energy (DE) and the metabolizable energy (ME) in the ingredient is determined. However, it is not known if the obtained DE and ME values are accurate for all inclusion rates of the feed ingredient in diets.

There are two reasons that differing inclusion rates of high fiber ingredients in diets fed to pigs might result in variable DE and ME values. Because energy from dietary fiber is obtained via hindgut fermentation, there may be a saturation point in the fermentation capacity in the hindgut of growing pigs. In addition, increasing dietary fiber increases the passage rate of feed through the digestive tract and thus reduces time for fermentation. However, it is not known if these potential issues affect the DE and ME in fibrous ingredients fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of inclusion rate of four commonly used high fiber dietary ingredients on the concentration of DE and ME by growing pigs.

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Of fiber, carbohydrases, and pigs

Abelilla, J. J., D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Of fiber, carbohydrases, and pigs. Pages 9-15 In Proc. Midwest Swine Nutrition Conf., Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 7, 2017.

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Effects of high neutral detergent fiber diets on the nitrogen balance of pigs fed threonine-limited diets

Mathai, J. K., H. L. Spangler, H. H. Stein, and K. J. Touchette. 2017. Effects of high neutral detergent fiber diets on the nitrogen balance of pigs fed threonine-limited diets. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):136 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on total tract digestibility of dry matter, energy, fiber, and protein by growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on total tract digestibility of dry matter, energy, fiber, and protein by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):90 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients and effects on in vitro ileal and total tract digestibility of dry matter.

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients and effects on in vitro ileal and total tract digestibility of dry matter. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):89-90 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients and effects on in vitro ileal and total tract digestibility of dry matter

The chemical composition and structure of dietary fiber, as well as physicochemical characteristics such as bulk density, swelling, water binding capacity, and viscosity, may influence the digestion of energy and nutrients in feed ingredients. Having a complete account of the components of a feed ingredient, particularly the type and concentration of fiber, is necessary in order to accurately the energy value of an ingredient using prediction equations.

An experiment was conducted to obtain a detailed description of the composition of ten feed ingredients, and to compare the analyzed gross energy (GE) with the GE predicted by adding together the measured energy-containing components. A secondary objective was to measure the in vitro apparent total tract digestibility (IVATTD) and in vitro apparent ileal digestibility (IVAID) of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in the feed ingredients, and to determine the correlations between the physicochemical characteristics of the ingredients and the in vitro digestibility.

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Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on total tract digestibility of dry matter, energy, fiber, and protein by growing pigs

Dietary fiber is resistant to digestion in the small intestine, but is fermented in the large intestine and the resulting short chain fatty acids provide some energy to the pig. Fermentation occurs to a greater or lesser degree depending on the chemical and physical composition of the fiber; soluble fiber is generally fermented to a greater extent than insoluble fiber.

Bulk density, swelling capacity, water binding capacity, and viscosity of diets fed to pigs vary based on the types of fiber present in the diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients are correlated with the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, dry matter (DM), and nutrients in corn, wheat, soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, copra meal, sugar beet pulp, solka floc, and pectin.

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Effects of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, M. C. Walsh, J. C. McCann, J. J. Loor, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci 95:308-319. Link to full text (.pdf)

Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1312-1316. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts

Mathai, J. K, J. K. Htoo, J. E. Thomson, K. J. Touchette, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4217-4230. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., E. Vinyeta, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:1951-1960. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of a 3-Strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on relative tissue gene expression in nursery and finishing pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets

Jaworski, N. W., M. C. Walsh, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effect of a 3-Strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on relative tissue gene expression in nursery and finishing pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):83 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of fiber, a direct-fed microbial, and feeding duration on ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients by pigs

Jaworski, N. W., M. C. Walsh, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of fiber, a direct-fed microbial, and feeding duration on ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients by pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):73-74 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and intestinal concentrations of volatile fatty acids in nursery pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets

Increasing the inclusion of dietary fiber in nursery pig diets may stimulate beneficial gut microbiota and reduce post-weaning diarrhea. However, the digestibility of nutrients and energy is decreased in high fiber diets. Nursery pigs fed diets high in fiber have been shown to have reduced ADFI and G:F.

Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) secrete a large amount and a wide variety of fiber degrading enzymes. It is thought that feeding DFM may offset some of the negative effects of  a high fiber diet. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of a Bacillus-based DFM will increase fermentation of dietary fiber and improve growth performance when fed to nursery pigs.

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Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:4808-4818. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and volatile fatty acid production in nursery pigs fed low or high fiber diets

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, A. Awati, A. Thomas, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and volatile fatty acid production in nursery pigs fed low or high fiber diets. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):856 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, volatile fatty acid production, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal tract weights in growing-finishing pigs fed low or high fiber diets

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, A. Awati, A. Thomas, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, volatile fatty acid production, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal tract weights in growing-finishing pigs fed low or high fiber diets. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):856 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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