Distillers dried grains with solubles

Digestibility of energy and nutrients, and concentrations of DE and ME, in Dakota Gold DDGS fed to pigs

In recent years, companies that produce distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

There is limited information about how oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of energy, fiber, and fat when fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), as well as the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in two sources of DDGS. One source was a conventional DDGS, and the other was Dakota Gold, a low-oil DDGS.

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Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China

Huang, C. F., H. H. Stein, L. Y. Zhang, D. Li, and C. H. Lai. 2017. Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China. Transl. Anim. Sci. 1:126-136. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are fed to pigs as a source of energy and amino acids. In recent years, ethanol plants have begun recovering corn oil from DDGS to sell for biodiesel and other uses. Conventional corn DDGS contains 10-12 fat, compared with 5-9% fat in low oil DDGS. Previous research in our lab showed that amino acid digestibility was reduced in low oil DDGS compared with conventional DDGS, but that research used DDGS from only one supplier. An experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in low oil DDGS sourced from multiple different suppliers.

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Digestibility of energy, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility in conventional and high protein DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product from the dry-grind ethanol production. It is increasingly in demand for use in livestock feeding, including diets fed to pigs. Conventional DDGS (DDGS-CV) contains approximately 27% crude protein. A high protein DDGS (DDGS-HP) product, containing 38 to 40% crude protein, has recently been developed by Lincolnway Energy by using front end separation that allows for fractionation of the corn kernel before it is fermented. The nutritional value for pigs of the resulting  DDGS-HP has, however, not yet been fully described.

Therefore, two experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to determine the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in DDGS-HP and DDGS-CV fed to growing pigs. In the second experiment, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in DDGS-CV and DDGS-HP were compared.

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Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls

Jaworski, N. W. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls. J. Anim. Sci. 95:727-739. Link to abstract

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in and around Illinois

Curry, S. M., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in and around Illinois. Prof. Anim. Sci. 32:687-694. Link to abstract

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Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, K. B. Wilson, R. J. Matulis, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger and D. D. Boler. 2016. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2198-2206. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers’ dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing–finishing barrows and gilts

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, E. K. Arkfeld, I. M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger and D. D. Boler. 2016. Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers’ dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing–finishing barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2172-2183. Link to full text (.pdf)

Xylanase responses on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, fiber and energy in growing pigs fed corn, 30% corn co-products and soybean meal based diets as influenced by microbial phytase and acclimatization period

Kiarie, E., Y. Liu, M. C. Walsh, H. H. Stein, and L. Payling. 2016. Xylanase responses on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, fiber and energy in growing pigs fed corn, 30% corn co-products and soybean meal based diets as influenced by microbial phytase and acclimatization period. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):112-113 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of pelleting and extrusion on energy digestibility in pig diets containing different levels of fiber

Rojas, O. J., E. Vinyeta, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of pelleting and extrusion on energy digestibility in pig diets containing different levels of fiber. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):227-228 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Comparative efficacy of xylanases on energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets

Kiarie, E., L. F. Romero, S. Arent, R. Lorentsen, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Comparative efficacy of xylanases on energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):225 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains

Jaworski, N. W., H. N. Lærke, K. E. Bach Knudsen, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains. J. Anim. Sci. 93:1103-1113. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on stomach morphology and ulceration scores in growing-finishing pigs

Grossman, I. M., M. F. Overholt, J. E. Lowell, H. H. Stein, E. K. Arkfed, A. C. Dilger, and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on stomach morphology and ulceration scores in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):195-196 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and visceral weights of growing-finishing pigs

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, I. M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger, and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and visceral weights of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):186-187 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on ATTD of energy, organic matter, and detergent fiber in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on apparent total tract digestibility of energy, organic matter, and detergent fiber in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):135 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Curry, S. M. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):59 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Gutierrez, N. A., D. Y. Kil, Y. Liu, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94:3008-3016. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing–finishing pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, D. C. Mahan, G. M. Hill, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing–finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4486-4493. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the ethanol industry and is often used as an economical source of energy and protein in swine diets. Conventional DDGS contains approximately 27% crude protein, 10% fat, 9% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and 25% (NDF). The concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in conventional sources of DDGS are approximately 3,500 and 3,350 kcal/kg, respectively. However, there is significant variation in the way different plants produce DDGS. For example, in recent years ethanol plants have begun extracting oil from DDGS to sell to the biodiesel industry. This results in DDGS with its fat content reduced to approximately 6 to 9%, which may result in lower concentrations of DE and ME.

If pigs are fed diets containing decreased levels of DE and ME relative to conventional DDGS, a reduction in growth performance may result. This would make DDGS a less economical feedstuff. An experiment was conducted to determine the variability of DE and ME in DDGS produced in and around Illinois.

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Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of DE and ME and on digestibility of energy, organic matter, and fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of the ethanol industry, is an affordable source of energy and protein in pig diets. DDGS contains more gross energy than corn, but the energy is less digestible because of the high concentration of insoluble fiber in DDGS. If the fiber in DDGS could be made more soluble with pretreatment, its feed value would be improved.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of physical, chemical, and enzymatic pretreatments on the concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy and on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy, organic matter, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral (NDF) detergent fiber.

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