Enzyme-treated soybean meal

Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients

Navarro, D. M. D. L., Y. Liu, T. S. Bruun, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients. J. Anim. Sci. 95:2658-2669. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs

C. Pedersen, C, J. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 3):340-343. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in processed soybean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., Y. Liu, T. S. Bruun, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in processed soybean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):60 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Nutritional value of soybean products

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean products. Pages 19-25 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 4, 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in processed soybean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility in processed soybean products and rapeseed products fed to weanling pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., Y. Liu, T. S. Bruun, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility in processed soybean products and rapeseed products fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):221 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Illinois soybean farmers can support the livestock industry

Stein, H. H. 2014. Illinois soybean farmers can support the livestock industry. Page 5 in Illinois Field & Bean, March 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Amino acid digestibility in processed soybean products, rapeseed expellers, and a fermented mixture of co-products fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. It is possible that fermentation can make 00-rapeseed meals and 00-rapeseed expellers suitable for feeding to weanling pigs, but no research has been conducted to confirm this hypothesis. An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by weanling pigs of crude protein and amino acids in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

Publication Type: 

Nutritional value of soy products fed to pigs

Stein, H. H., J. A. Roth, K. M. Sotak, and O. J. Rojas. 2013. Nutritional value of soy products fed to pigs. Swine Focus #004. Link to full text (.pdf)

Materias primas alternativas en nutriciĆ³n porcina: 3. Nuevos derivados de la soja

Stein, H. H. 2011. Materias primas alternativas en nutrición porcina: 3. Nuevos derivados de la soja. Pages 36-45 in Suis, January/February 2011. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Phosphorus digestibility and energy concentration of enzyme-treated and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Goebel, K. P., and H. H. Stein. 2011. Phosphorus digestibility and energy concentration of enzyme-treated and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:764–772. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Phosphorus and energy digestibility in enzyme treated soybean meal

Goebel, K. P. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Phosphorus and energy digestibility in enzyme treated soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):86 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional, fermented, and enzyme-treated soybean meal and in soy protein isolate, fish meal, and casein fed to weanling pigs

Cervantes-Pahm, S. F., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional, fermented, and enzyme treated soybean meal and in soy protein isolate, fishmeal, and casein fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  88:2674-2683. Link to full text (.pdf)

Alternatives to fish meal in diets fed to weanling pigs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

July, 2010

Increased global demand for fish meal has resulted in rapidly increased costs of fish meal during the last 6 month. The recent shutdown of many fish processing facilities in the Gulf area has exacerbated the situation and many producers are no longer able to secure fish meal for their pigs. It is, therefore necessary to look for alternatives to fish meal in diets fed to swine.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Nutrition advances benefit swine and the bottom line

Stein, H. H. 2010. Nutrition advances benefit swine and the bottom line. Pages 10-13 in Feed Management, May/June 2010.  Link to full text

Authors: 

Digestibility of amino acids in novel soybean products

Raw soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors (TI) and lectins.  The production of soybean meal involves a heating step, which reduces these anti-nutritional factors. However, conventional soybean meal contains compounds which can cause digestive disturbances in weanling pigs. Soybean meal is therefore limited in pig starter diets. Other protein sources, such as fish meal, casein, and soy protein isolate, are used for young pigs.

Two new soybean products were recently introduced to the U.S. feed market.  Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM) are believed to have a lower concentration of antinutritional factors and a higher concentration of crude protein and amino acids than conventional soybean meal.  They are also believed to be better tolerated by young pigs. However, not much is known about the digestibility of the protein in these two products.

This experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs of FSBM, ESBM, conventional de-hulled soybean meal, fish meal, casein, and soy protein isolate.

Publication Type: