Fermented soybean meal

Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs

C. Pedersen, C, J. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Analysis of published data for standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soy proteins fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 3):340-343. Link to abstract

Effects of replacing fish, chicken, or poultry by-product meal with fermented soybean meal in diets fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of replacing fish, chicken, or poultry by-product meal with fermented soybean meal in diets fed to weanling pigs. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 28:22-41. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of soybean products

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean products. Pages 19-25 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 4, 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Illinois soybean farmers can support the livestock industry

Stein, H. H. 2014. Illinois soybean farmers can support the livestock industry. Page 5 in Illinois Field & Bean, March 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4397-4405. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of soy products fed to pigs

Stein, H. H., J. A. Roth, K. M. Sotak, and O. J. Rojas. 2013. Nutritional value of soy products fed to pigs. Swine Focus #004. Link to full text (.pdf)

Inclusion of fermented soybean meal, chicken meal, or poultry by-product meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Rojas Martinez, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Inclusion of fermented soybean meal, chicken meal, or poultry by-product meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):115 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with microbial phytase

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with microbial phytase. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1506-1512. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of replacing chicken meal or poultry by-product meal with fermented soybean meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Animal proteins such as milk products, blood products, fish meal, chicken meal (CM), and poultry by-product meal (PBM) are usually used as amino acid sources in diets for weanling pigs because the nutrients in these ingredients are highly digestible and because they do not contain the anti-nutritional factors that are present in conventional soybean meal. Due to the cost of animal protein sources, other alternatives have been investigated. One alternative is soybean meal which has been fermented to destroy antinutritional factors and increase protein digestibility. Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) has been shown to be able to replace milk, blood proteins, and fish meal in diets fed to weanling pigs. However, there are no data on whether or not fermented soybean meal can replace chicken meal and poultry by-product meal. An experiment was, therefore, performed to test the hypothesis that fermented soybean meal can replace chicken meal and poultry by-product meal in diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

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Effects of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Animal proteins such as milk products, blood products, fish meal, chicken meal, and poultry by-product meal are usually used as amino acid sources in diets for weanling pigs because the nutrients in these ingredients are highly digestible and because they do not contain the anti-nutritional factors that are present  in conventional soybean meal. Due to the cost of animal protein sources, other alternatives have been investigated. One alternative is soybean meal which has been fermented to destroy antinutritional factors and increase protein digestibility. Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) may partly replace milk and blood proteins in diets fed to weanling pigs from seven to 21 days post-weaning. However, there are no data on the inclusion of more than 10% FSBM in diets fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FSBM may be included in diets fed to weanling pigs to replace all animal protein sources.

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Concentration of energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a rich source of digestible amino acids for pigs. However, soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that make soybeans and conventional soybean meal unsuitable for feeding to weanling pigs in great quantities. Therefore, animal protein is usually included in starter diets for pigs. Because soy protein is less expensive than the animal protein, strategies to reduce the antinutritional factors in soy products have been explored. Fermentation of soybean meal with bacteria such as Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus subtilis eliminates many antinutritional factors, and studies have shown that fermented soybean meal is well-tolerated by weanling pigs. However, there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and amino acids in fermented soybean meal. Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to measure the concentration of DE and ME and the digestibility of amino acids in fermented soybean meal and to compare these values to values obtained in conventional soybean meal and fish meal.

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Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):333 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in fermented and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in fermented and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of phosphorus by weanling pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with exogenous phytase

The majority of phosphorus in conventional soybean meal is bound in the phytate complex. Pigs do not secrete the phytase enzyme, so phytate-bound phosphorus is not digested and is excreted in the feces. Not only does this deprive pigs of an essential nutrient, but excessive phosphorus excretion can contribute to environmental problems as well.

Addition of microbial phytase is one strategy for increasing the digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal. Another potentially effective strategy is to feed fermented soybean meal.  Fermentation may result in hydrolysis of phytate and release of phytate-bound phosphorus, thus making more phosphorus available to the pig.

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Materias primas alternativas en nutrición porcina: 3. Nuevos derivados de la soja

Stein, H. H. 2011. Materias primas alternativas en nutrición porcina: 3. Nuevos derivados de la soja. Pages 36-45 in Suis, January/February 2011. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Fermented soybean meal substitutes for fish meal

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Fermented soybean meal substitutes for fish meal. Page 16 in National Hog Farmer, December 15, 2010. Link to full text

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional, fermented, and enzyme-treated soybean meal and in soy protein isolate, fish meal, and casein fed to weanling pigs

Cervantes-Pahm, S. F., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional, fermented, and enzyme treated soybean meal and in soy protein isolate, fishmeal, and casein fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  88:2674-2683. Link to full text (.pdf)

Alternatives to fish meal in diets fed to weanling pigs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

July, 2010

Increased global demand for fish meal has resulted in rapidly increased costs of fish meal during the last 6 month. The recent shutdown of many fish processing facilities in the Gulf area has exacerbated the situation and many producers are no longer able to secure fish meal for their pigs. It is, therefore necessary to look for alternatives to fish meal in diets fed to swine.

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Nutrition advances benefit swine and the bottom line

Stein, H. H. 2010. Nutrition advances benefit swine and the bottom line. Pages 10-13 in Feed Management, May/June 2010.  Link to full text

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