Growth performance

Effects of Dakota Gold distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and conventional DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets as meal or as pellets

Dakota Gold is a low-oil source of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced using a cold-fermentation process. Recent research conducted by the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory has demonstrated that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids is greater in Dakota Gold than in conventional DDGS, but Dakota Gold contains less metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional DDGS.

An experiment was conducted to determine effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feeding Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS to pigs from weaning to market. Because limited information exists about effects of pelleting on growth performance of pigs fed diets that contain DDGS, this research also tested the effects of feeding diets containing either Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS in a meal form or in a pelleted form.

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Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets

She, Y., Y. Liu, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 232:102-109. Link to abstract

Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A., C. Huang, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):148 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, M. C. Walsh, J. C. McCann, J. J. Loor, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci 95:308-319. Link to abstract

Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

Pedersen, T. F., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds. J. Anim. Sci 94:5206-5218. Link to abstract

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Effect of adding tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to diets for weanling pigs

Copper is an essential micronutrient for animals. It is involved in cellular respiration and connective tissue development as well as being an essential component of several enzymes. High doses of copper—about 20 times the nutritional requirement—have been shown to improve growth performance in pigs. This may be because copper has an antimicrobial effect in the intestinal tract.

When supplemental copper is added to pig diets, it is usually in the form of copper sulfate. However, another form called tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) has been shown to be equally effective and may be  more bioavailable, but it is not yet known how much TBCC should be fed to optimize performance. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding 100 or 200 mg/kg TBCC to diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1312-1316. Link to abstract

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Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4179-4187. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs

Merriman, L. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3844-3850. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Requirement for digestible calcium by eleven- to twenty-five–kg pigs as determined by growth performance, bone ash concentration, calcium and phosphorus balances, and expression of genes involved in transport of calcium in intestinal and kidney cells

González-Vega, J. C., Y. Liu, J. C. McCann, C. L. Walk, J. J. Loor, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Requirement for digestible calcium by eleven- to twenty-five–kilogram pigs as determined by growth performance, bone ash concentration, calcium and phosphorus balances, and expression of genes involved in transport of calcium in intestinal and kidney cells. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3321-3334. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of high protein canola meal on digestibility of phosphorus and growth performance of weanling pigs

She, Y., H. H. Salgado, D. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of high protein canola meal on digestibility of phosphorus and growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):457 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran and microbial xylanase on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran and microbial xylanase on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):441 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of using soy protein concentrate as a protein source in diets fed to weanling pigs

Because of the presence of antinutritional factors, the use of soybean meal in weanling pig diets is limited. Animal protein sources can be used, but their cost is high relative to plant protein sources. Therefore, it is economically advantageous to find high quality plant protein sources that weanling pigs can tolerate.

Soybean meal can be processed in various ways to remove or reduce antinutritional factors. One way is to use an alcohol extraction process to remove water-soluble carbohydrates, followed by heat treatment. This process produces soy protein concentrate. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding a soy protein concentrate product called X-SOY 200 on growth performance and blood parameters in weanling pigs.

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Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers’ dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing–finishing barrows and gilts

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, E. K. Arkfeld, I. M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger and D. D. Boler. 2016. Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers’ dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing–finishing barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2172-2183. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance of weanling pigs

Rice bran is the brown outer layer of brown rice, which is removed from brown rice to produce white polished rice for human consumption. Rice bran may be full fat, containing 14 to 25% fat, or defatted, which reduces the concentration of fat to less than 5%.

Rice bran has a high concentration of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), primarily arabinoxylan and cellulose. NSPs decrease nutrient digestibility and thus limit the inclusion of rice bran in weanling pig diets. Recent data from our laboratory indicate that adding exogenous xylanase to diets containing full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) increases the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increased inclusion levels of FFRB or DFRB to diets without or with exogenous xylanase on growth performance.

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Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance and metacarpal bone ash in weanling pigs

Liu, Y., J. C. González-Vega, M. Vázquez-Añón, J. Zhao, J. Escobar, F. N. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance and metacarpal bone ash in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):111-112 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentration of phosphorus by growth performance and bone ash concentration

An excess of calcium in swine diets may increase excretion of phosphorus due to formation of Ca-P complexes. Therefore, when formulating diets for pigs, it is important to consider the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The proper ratio should ensure that both minerals are maximally utilized in the bodies of the pigs.

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Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing–finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing–finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:619-628. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and intestinal concentrations of volatile fatty acids in nursery pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets

Increasing the inclusion of dietary fiber in nursery pig diets may stimulate beneficial gut microbiota and reduce post-weaning diarrhea. However, the digestibility of nutrients and energy is decreased in high fiber diets. Nursery pigs fed diets high in fiber have been shown to have reduced ADFI and G:F.

Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) secrete a large amount and a wide variety of fiber degrading enzymes. It is thought that feeding DFM may offset some of the negative effects of  a high fiber diet. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of a Bacillus-based DFM will increase fermentation of dietary fiber and improve growth performance when fed to nursery pigs.

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Page 23 in Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, October 26-28, 2015. (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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