Heat treatment

Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., M. Song, T. Maison, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4466-4477. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in heat-damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in heat-damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal. J. Anim. Sci. 92:585-593. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 187:44-52. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 4:44. Link to full text (.pdf)

Efeitos do melhoramento genético e técnicas de processamento na utilização do farelo de soja por suínos

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Efeitos do melhoramento genético e técnicas de processamento na utilização do farelo de soja por suínos. "Americas: International Conference on Soybean Utilization", Oct 22-24, 2013, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

The production of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) involves a drying step in which temperature may reach 500°C or greater. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine's chemical structure makes it particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction. However, during the acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis, some lysine is recovered from Maillard products, but this lysine cannot be utilized by the animals, and thus, the amount of digestible lysine in a sample may be overestimated. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn DDGS fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in DDGS.

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Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):686 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Effects of heat treatment on the composition and amino acid digestibility of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is the second most used plant protein source, after soybean meal, in livestock diets. The production of canola meal involves a step in which the meal is treated with steam for 35 to 50 minutes at temperatures from 95 to 115°C. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine is particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction, so it is important to determine accurate digestible lysine levels in feedstuffs that may be heat damaged. Amino acid analysis that does not account for lysine recovered from acid hydrolysis of Maillard products may overestimate the amount of digestible lysine in a sample. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Another objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in canola meal.

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Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition and on the amino acid digestibility of canola meal, sunflower meal, and cottonseed meal fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition and on the amino acid digestibility of canola meal, sunflower meal, and cottonseed meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):27 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal and cottonseed meal can be used in place of soybean meal as protein sources for swine diets. The production of both involves heat treatment, to extract oil from sunflower seeds and cottonseeds and to reduce antinutritional factors. When heat is applied to feed ingredients in the presence of moisture, a series of chemical reactions known as the Maillard reaction may be initiated.  In the Maillard reaction, amino acids and reducing sugars combine to form indigestible compounds known as Amadori compounds. These amino acids are therefore not available to the pigs. Lysine is particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction. It is important to know the extent of heat damage in feed ingredients so that diets may be formulated that supply the appropriate amounts of digestible amino acids to pigs.

Little information is available about the effects of heat processing on amino acid digestibility in sunflower meal and cottonseed meal. Furthermore, equations to predict the concentration of digestible amino acids in sunflower meal and cottonseed meal from the analyzed nutrient composition have not been reported. Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in sunflower meal and in cottonseed meal fed to growing pigs, and to test if regression equations could be developed to predict the concentration of SID lysine in sunflower meal and cottonseed meal.

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Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Almeida, F. N., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Pages 269-274 in XXVIII Curso de Especialización: Avances en nutrición y alimentación animal, Madrid, Nov. 7-8, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal fed to pigs undergoes heat treatment to destroy trypsin inhibitors and other antinutritional factors that impair the digestion of protein and thus reduce performance. However, heat treatment can damage nutrients as well. In particular, the Maillard reaction reduces amino acid digestibility by combining amino acids with sugars to produce biologically unavailable compounds.

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in pigs fed soybean meal that had been heat treated in varying ways and for varying times. Conventional soybean meal was divided into four batches. One batch was not heated; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 15 minutes; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 30 minutes; and the last one was oven dried at 125°C for 30 minutes. Ten growing barrows were fed a total of five different diets. The experimental diets contained 40% each of the four different soybean meals being tested. An N-free diet was also formulated and fed to measure the basal endogenous loss of protein and amino acids.

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., B. G. Kim, J. K. Htoo, A. Lemme, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3617-3625. Link to full text (.pdf)