Lactating sows

Productivity of sows fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds during gestation and lactation

Canola meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source used in animal diets. However, the digestibility of amino acids and digestible energy is lower in canola meal than in soybean meal because of the high concentration of fiber in canola meal. The high fiber content and the presence of glucosinolates limit inclusion of canola meal in diets fed to pigs.

Research on using canola meal in pig diets at different stages has indicated that it can be used in gestation diets without limitation and 15 to 20% may be included in lactation diets. However, at least one study indicated that including canola meal in gestating and lactation diets reduced the number of pigs born alive and the number of pigs weaned, and also reduced lactation feed intake and litter weaning weight.

New canola varieties have been developed that yield meal with more protein and less fiber compared with conventional canola meal (CM-CV). The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of feeding diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or CM-CV to sows during gestation and lactation, and to determine the optimum inclusion rates of CM-HP and CM-CV in gestation and lactation diets.

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Nucleotides in sows' colostrum and milk at different stages of lactation

Mateo, C. D., D. N. Peters, and H. H. Stein. 2003. Nucleotides in sows' colostrum and milk at different stages of lactation. J. Anim. Sci.81(Suppl. 1):16 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of stage of lactation on colostrum and milk composition in multiparous sows

Mateo, C. D., H. H. Stein, M. R. Smiricky-Tjardes, and D. N. Peters. 2003. Effect of stage of lactation on colostrum and milk composition in multiparous sows. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 2):67 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of litter size and day of lactation on amino acid uptake by the porcine mammary glands

Nielsen, T. T., N. L. Trottier, H. H. Stein, C. Bellaver, and R. A. Easter. 2002. Effect of litter size and day of lactation on amino acid uptake by the porcine mammary glands. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):131 (Abstr.)

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Effect of litter size on mammary gland amino acid uptake in lactating sows

Nielsen, T. T., N. L. Trottier, C. Bellaver, H. H. Stein, and R. A. Easter. 1996. Effect of litter size on mammary gland amino acid uptake in lactating sows. Livestock Prod. Sci. 50:167-168 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Endogenous secretions of proteins and amino acids in pregnant and lactating sows

Stein, H. H. and R. A. Easter, 1997. Endogenous secretions of proteins and amino acids in pregnant and lactating sows. In: J. P. LaPlace, C. Fevrier, and A. Barbeau (ED). Digestive physiology in pigs. EAAP publ. No 88. p. 321-324. St. Malo, France.  Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid requirements in lactating sows

Stein, H. H. 1996. Amino acid requirements in lactating sows. A review. In: University of Illinois Swine Research Reports, p. 32. Link to full text (.pdf)

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A nonlinear model for mammary gland growth and regression in lactating sows

Kim, S. W., M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, and R. A. Easter. 2000. A nonlinear model for mammary gland growth and regression in lactating sows. Growth Dev. Aging 64:71-81. Link to abstract

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