Meat and bone meal

The effect of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2016. The effect of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., N. W. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):105 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Most swine diets must be supplemented with calcium because most plant ingredients commonly used in diets for pigs contain relatively little calcium. One way to add calcium is to include inorganic sources such as dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate; however, animal ingredients such as meat byproduct meals can also be used. These ingredients, often used as a protein source, are also a good source of calcium. To our knowledge, values for apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of calcium in animal sources have not been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the ATTD and STTD of calcium in four calcium sources of animal origin.

The secondary objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of microbial phytase to diets containing calcium sources of animal origin would increase the digestibility of calcium. Although animal sources do not contain phytate, swine diets are composed primarily of plant ingredients, and the phytate in those ingredients might form complexes with the calcium in the animal sources.

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Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Sulabo, R. C. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1285-1294. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of animal proteins fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Nutritional value of animal proteins fed to pigs. Pages 9-24 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 13, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry composed primarily of the offal and bones of slaughtered livestock, fat from unmarketable animal tissues, unsellable retail meat products, and whole condemned carcasses (excluding hair, blood, hooves, horns, and contents of the gastrointestinal tract).  MBM is traditionally used as an animal protein source in swine diets, but because of its high concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, it can also replace inorganic phosphates in swine diets.

The proportions of soft tissue and bone in different sources of MBM can vary widely. Because mineral digestibility differs in bone and soft tissue, the variation in composition of MBM sources leads to a variation in mineral digestibility values.

An experiment was conducted to 1) determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus and the ATTD of calcium in 8 different sources of MBM,  2) estimate variation among MBM sources, and 3) develop equations to predict the concentrations of digestible phosphorus and calcium in MBM.

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