Metabolizable energy

The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high-fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong,  and H. H. Stein. 2018. The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high-fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:1860-1868. Link to abstract

High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end-back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D. and H. H. Stein. 2018. High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end-back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):174 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and fat and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, D. A., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and fat and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):173-174 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids, energy, fat, and fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Lee, S. A., C. D. Espinosa, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Digestibility of amino acids, energy, fat, and fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):172-173 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in mixed diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):159 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Young Scholar Presentation: Nutritional value of rice coproducts fed to pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2018. Young Scholar Presentation: Nutritional value of rice coproducts fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):143 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of various heat treatments on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Mathai, J. K., J. K. Htoo, M. Wiltafsky, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of various heat treatments on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):25-26 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Nutrient composition and digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A., D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Nutrient composition and digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:215-224. Link to full text

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The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Fiber in feed ingredients used in diets for pigs is mainly used for energy, which is synthesized by microbes in the hindgut of the pig and absorbed in the form of short chained fatty acids. To estimate the energy that a pig can obtain in a particular fibrous ingredient, a digestibility experiment is usually conducted and the digestible energy (DE) and the metabolizable energy (ME) in the ingredient is determined. However, it is not known if the obtained DE and ME values are accurate for all inclusion rates of the feed ingredient in diets.

There are two reasons that differing inclusion rates of high fiber ingredients in diets fed to pigs might result in variable DE and ME values. Because energy from dietary fiber is obtained via hindgut fermentation, there may be a saturation point in the fermentation capacity in the hindgut of growing pigs. In addition, increasing dietary fiber increases the passage rate of feed through the digestive tract and thus reduces time for fermentation. However, it is not known if these potential issues affect the DE and ME in fibrous ingredients fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of inclusion rate of four commonly used high fiber dietary ingredients on the concentration of DE and ME by growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy and nutrients, and concentrations of DE and ME, in Dakota Gold DDGS fed to pigs

In recent years, companies that produce distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

There is limited information about how oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of energy, fiber, and fat when fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), as well as the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in two sources of DDGS. One source was a conventional DDGS, and the other was Dakota Gold, a low-oil DDGS.

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Digestibility of NDF and concentration of DE and ME in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

In recent years, ethanol plants have begun extracting more oil from the solubles left over after fermentation. The resulting low oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) contain less digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than traditional DDGS.

The fat content of the diet affects the digestibility of energy and nutrients. Because the production of low oil DDGS is a relatively new development, it has not been established that digestibility values are the same across suppliers. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and the concentration of DE and ME among DDGS samples from different suppliers.

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Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake. J. Anim. Sci. 95:3136-3142. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of energy, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility in conventional and high protein DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product from the dry-grind ethanol production. It is increasingly in demand for use in livestock feeding, including diets fed to pigs. Conventional DDGS (DDGS-CV) contains approximately 27% crude protein. A high protein DDGS (DDGS-HP) product, containing 38 to 40% crude protein, has recently been developed by Lincolnway Energy by using front end separation that allows for fractionation of the corn kernel before it is fermented. The nutritional value for pigs of the resulting  DDGS-HP has, however, not yet been fully described.

Therefore, two experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to determine the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in DDGS-HP and DDGS-CV fed to growing pigs. In the second experiment, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in DDGS-CV and DDGS-HP were compared.

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Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A., C. Huang, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):148 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of feeding level and physiological stage on digestibility of gross energy and nutrients and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran fed to gestating sows and growing gilts

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of feeding level and physiological stage on digestibility of gross energy and nutrients and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran fed to gestating sows and growing gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):78 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are two coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as sources of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder. The composition of wheat middlings varies from mill to mill because of the different conditions under which they are produced.

Wheat and wheat co-products contain more non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) than other grains commonly fed to pigs. Because pigs lack the enzymes needed to digest NSPs, this may affect the digestibility of energy and nutrients. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), and organic matter (OM), and the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in ten sources of wheat middlings as well as one source of red dog.

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1312-1316. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in and around Illinois

Curry, S. M., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in and around Illinois. Prof. Anim. Sci. 32:687-694. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets

Huang, C., H. H. Stein, and G. A. Casas. 2016. Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets. Pages 32-33 in Pig Progress, July 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of feeding level and physiological stage on digestibility of GE and nutrients and concentration of DE and ME in full fat and defatted rice bran fed to gestating sows and growing gilts

Gestating sows have been found to have greater digestibility of energy than growing pigs. One possible explanation is that sows' larger intestinal tracts and more efficient fermentation of fiber allow them to extract more energy from their feed.

Gestating sows are usually restricted in their feed allowance while growing pigs are fed ad libitum. This confounds comparisons between sows and growing pigs because feeding level affects the rate at which feed passes through the intestinal tract and may affect the efficiency of digestion.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to separate the effects of physiological stage from the effects of the level of feed intake on digestibility of gross energy (GE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB).

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