Wheat middlings

The ileal digestibility of most amino acids is greater in red dog than in wheat middlings when fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2017. The ileal digestibility of most amino acids is greater in red dog than in wheat middlings when fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:2718-2725. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls

Jaworski, N. W. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Disappearance of nutrients and energy in the stomach and small intestine, cecum, and colon of pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles, wheat middlings, or soybean hulls. J. Anim. Sci. 95:727-739. Link to abstract

Authors: 

Digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are two coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as sources of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder. The composition of wheat middlings varies from mill to mill because of the different conditions under which they are produced.

Wheat and wheat co-products contain more non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) than other grains commonly fed to pigs. Because pigs lack the enzymes needed to digest NSPs, this may affect the digestibility of energy and nutrients. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), and organic matter (OM), and the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in ten sources of wheat middlings as well as one source of red dog.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as a source of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder.

The digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in wheat coproducts produced in China has been reported, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of wheat middlings and red dog produced in the United States. In addition, because wheat coproducts vary in terms of the conditions under which they are produced, their nutritional value may vary as well. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings and in one source of red dog.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs

Stewart, L. L., D. Y. Kil, F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2756-2765. Link to full text (.pdf)

Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Net energy of soybean hulls and wheat middlings in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Stewart, L. L., D. Y. Kil, F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Net energy of soybean hulls and wheat middlings in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):99-100 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Effects of fibrous ingredients on pig performance and body composition

L. L. Stewart, D.Y. Kil, J. F. Patience, G. L. Allee, J. E. Pettigrew, H. H. Stein. 2008. Effects of fibrous ingredients on pig performance and body composition. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 3):76-77 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: