Research Reports

Digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in Dakota Gold distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to pigs is greater than in conventional DDGS

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of ethanol production. In recent years, companies that produce DDGS have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

Research has shown that adding fat to diets fed to pigs increases the digestibility of amino acids in the diets. However, there is limited information about how reduced oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of protein when fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in conventional DDGS and in the low-oil DDGS product Dakota Gold, which is produced using a process that does not involve heating.

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Digestibility of energy and nutrients, and concentrations of DE and ME, in Dakota Gold DDGS fed to pigs

In recent years, companies that produce distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

There is limited information about how oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of energy, fiber, and fat when fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), as well as the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in two sources of DDGS. One source was a conventional DDGS, and the other was Dakota Gold, a low-oil DDGS.

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Digestibility of NDF and concentration of DE and ME in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

In recent years, ethanol plants have begun extracting more oil from the solubles left over after fermentation. The resulting low oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) contain less digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than traditional DDGS.

The fat content of the diet affects the digestibility of energy and nutrients. Because the production of low oil DDGS is a relatively new development, it has not been established that digestibility values are the same across suppliers. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and the concentration of DE and ME among DDGS samples from different suppliers.

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are fed to pigs as a source of energy and amino acids. In recent years, ethanol plants have begun recovering corn oil from DDGS to sell for biodiesel and other uses. Conventional corn DDGS contains 10-12 fat, compared with 5-9% fat in low oil DDGS. Previous research in our lab showed that amino acid digestibility was reduced in low oil DDGS compared with conventional DDGS, but that research used DDGS from only one supplier. An experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in low oil DDGS sourced from multiple different suppliers.

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Digestibility of energy, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility in conventional and high protein DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product from the dry-grind ethanol production. It is increasingly in demand for use in livestock feeding, including diets fed to pigs. Conventional DDGS (DDGS-CV) contains approximately 27% crude protein. A high protein DDGS (DDGS-HP) product, containing 38 to 40% crude protein, has recently been developed by Lincolnway Energy by using front end separation that allows for fractionation of the corn kernel before it is fermented. The nutritional value for pigs of the resulting  DDGS-HP has, however, not yet been fully described.

Therefore, two experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to determine the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in DDGS-HP and DDGS-CV fed to growing pigs. In the second experiment, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in DDGS-CV and DDGS-HP were compared.

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Productivity of sows fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds during gestation and lactation

Canola meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source used in animal diets. However, the digestibility of amino acids and digestible energy is lower in canola meal than in soybean meal because of the high concentration of fiber in canola meal. The high fiber content and the presence of glucosinolates limit inclusion of canola meal in diets fed to pigs.

Research on using canola meal in pig diets at different stages has indicated that it can be used in gestation diets without limitation and 15 to 20% may be included in lactation diets. However, at least one study indicated that including canola meal in gestating and lactation diets reduced the number of pigs born alive and the number of pigs weaned, and also reduced lactation feed intake and litter weaning weight.

New canola varieties have been developed that yield meal with more protein and less fiber compared with conventional canola meal (CM-CV). The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of feeding diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or CM-CV to sows during gestation and lactation, and to determine the optimum inclusion rates of CM-HP and CM-CV in gestation and lactation diets.

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Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients and effects on in vitro ileal and total tract digestibility of dry matter

The chemical composition and structure of dietary fiber, as well as physicochemical characteristics such as bulk density, swelling, water binding capacity, and viscosity, may influence the digestion of energy and nutrients in feed ingredients. Having a complete account of the components of a feed ingredient, particularly the type and concentration of fiber, is necessary in order to accurately the energy value of an ingredient using prediction equations.

An experiment was conducted to obtain a detailed description of the composition of ten feed ingredients, and to compare the analyzed gross energy (GE) with the GE predicted by adding together the measured energy-containing components. A secondary objective was to measure the in vitro apparent total tract digestibility (IVATTD) and in vitro apparent ileal digestibility (IVAID) of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in the feed ingredients, and to determine the correlations between the physicochemical characteristics of the ingredients and the in vitro digestibility.

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Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on total tract digestibility of dry matter, energy, fiber, and protein by growing pigs

Dietary fiber is resistant to digestion in the small intestine, but is fermented in the large intestine and the resulting short chain fatty acids provide some energy to the pig. Fermentation occurs to a greater or lesser degree depending on the chemical and physical composition of the fiber; soluble fiber is generally fermented to a greater extent than insoluble fiber.

Bulk density, swelling capacity, water binding capacity, and viscosity of diets fed to pigs vary based on the types of fiber present in the diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients are correlated with the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, dry matter (DM), and nutrients in corn, wheat, soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, copra meal, sugar beet pulp, solka floc, and pectin.

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Digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are two coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as sources of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder. The composition of wheat middlings varies from mill to mill because of the different conditions under which they are produced.

Wheat and wheat co-products contain more non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) than other grains commonly fed to pigs. Because pigs lack the enzymes needed to digest NSPs, this may affect the digestibility of energy and nutrients. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), and organic matter (OM), and the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in ten sources of wheat middlings as well as one source of red dog.

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Effect of adding tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to diets for weanling pigs

Copper is an essential micronutrient for animals. It is involved in cellular respiration and connective tissue development as well as being an essential component of several enzymes. High doses of copper—about 20 times the nutritional requirement—have been shown to improve growth performance in pigs. This may be because copper has an antimicrobial effect in the intestinal tract.

When supplemental copper is added to pig diets, it is usually in the form of copper sulfate. However, another form called tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) has been shown to be equally effective and may be  more bioavailable, but it is not yet known how much TBCC should be fed to optimize performance. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding 100 or 200 mg/kg TBCC to diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in wheat middlings and red dog fed to pigs

Wheat middlings and red dog are coproducts of the wheat milling process that are used as a source of energy and protein in animal feed. Wheat middlings are granular particles of the wheat endosperm, bran and germ. Red dog consists mainly of the aleurone layer that lies between the bran and the endosperm, along with small particles of bran, germ, and flour. It is often used in extrusion mixtures and as a pellet binder.

The digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in wheat coproducts produced in China has been reported, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of wheat middlings and red dog produced in the United States. In addition, because wheat coproducts vary in terms of the conditions under which they are produced, their nutritional value may vary as well. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings and in one source of red dog.

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Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal produced in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, India, or China

Soybean meal is the premier source of high quality plant protein for pig diets. However, the nutritional value of soybean meal can vary among sources due to genetic differences in soybean varieties or differences in climate, soil type, fertilizer application, or processing conditions. It is important that these variations be documented so that producers can accurately formulate diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine if standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids varied among sources of soybean meal from the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, India, or China.

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Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in diets fed to growing pigs

Zinc oxide, when added to weanling pig diets in pharmacological quantities of up to 2,500 mg/kg, can help prevent diarrhea during the post-weaning period. However, adding large quantities of zinc to diets has drawbacks. Zinc can interfere with calcium digestibility because it competes for the same transport pathway in cells lining the small intestine. Zinc may also reduce calcium digestibility by forming complexes with calcium and phytate.

The standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of calcium in various ingredients has only recently been determined, and possible interactions between zinc and phytase on the STTD of calcium have not yet been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of addition of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on STTD of calcium in diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Effects of feeding level and physiological stage on digestibility of GE and nutrients and concentration of DE and ME in full fat and defatted rice bran fed to gestating sows and growing gilts

Gestating sows have been found to have greater digestibility of energy than growing pigs. One possible explanation is that sows' larger intestinal tracts and more efficient fermentation of fiber allow them to extract more energy from their feed.

Gestating sows are usually restricted in their feed allowance while growing pigs are fed ad libitum. This confounds comparisons between sows and growing pigs because feeding level affects the rate at which feed passes through the intestinal tract and may affect the efficiency of digestion.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to separate the effects of physiological stage from the effects of the level of feed intake on digestibility of gross energy (GE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB).

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Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in milk co-products fed to growing pigs

Milk co-products are used in pig diets to provide lactose and, in some cases, high quality protein. In addition, milk co-products also provide calcium to the diets. However, this calcium can potentially bind to the phytate contained in the plant ingredients in the diets, which would reduce its digestibility.

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Effects of using soy protein concentrate as a protein source in diets fed to weanling pigs

Because of the presence of antinutritional factors, the use of soybean meal in weanling pig diets is limited. Animal protein sources can be used, but their cost is high relative to plant protein sources. Therefore, it is economically advantageous to find high quality plant protein sources that weanling pigs can tolerate.

Soybean meal can be processed in various ways to remove or reduce antinutritional factors. One way is to use an alcohol extraction process to remove water-soluble carbohydrates, followed by heat treatment. This process produces soy protein concentrate. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding a soy protein concentrate product called X-SOY 200 on growth performance and blood parameters in weanling pigs.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal, followed by heat treatment. The ethanol extraction process removes soluble carbohydrates, leaving a product that contains at least 65% crude protein (dry matter basis). Because soy protein concentrate contains reduced levels of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, and lectins compared with conventional soybean meal, it can be used in diets for weanling pigs.

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Amino acid digestibility in soy protein concentrate with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal, followed by heat treatment. The ethanol extraction process removes soluble carbohydrates, leaving a product that contains at least 65% crude protein. Because soy protein concentrate contains reduced levels of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, and lectins compared with conventional soybean meal, it can be used in diets for weanling pigs.

Reducing the particle size of soybean meal can increase amino acid digestibility due to the increased surface area for enzymes to work on. However, there are no known data on the effect of particle size on amino acid digestibility in soy protein concentrate. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in soy protein concentrate ground to three different particle sizes and to compare these values to values for soybean meal and fish meal when fed to weanling pigs.

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Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance of weanling pigs

Rice bran is the brown outer layer of brown rice, which is removed from brown rice to produce white polished rice for human consumption. Rice bran may be full fat, containing 14 to 25% fat, or defatted, which reduces the concentration of fat to less than 5%.

Rice bran has a high concentration of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), primarily arabinoxylan and cellulose. NSPs decrease nutrient digestibility and thus limit the inclusion of rice bran in weanling pig diets. Recent data from our laboratory indicate that adding exogenous xylanase to diets containing full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) increases the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increased inclusion levels of FFRB or DFRB to diets without or with exogenous xylanase on growth performance.

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Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentration of phosphorus by growth performance and bone ash concentration

An excess of calcium in swine diets may increase excretion of phosphorus due to formation of Ca-P complexes. Therefore, when formulating diets for pigs, it is important to consider the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The proper ratio should ensure that both minerals are maximally utilized in the bodies of the pigs.

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