Research Reports

Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentration of phosphorus by growth performance and bone ash concentration

An excess of calcium in swine diets may increase excretion of phosphorus due to formation of Ca-P complexes. Therefore, when formulating diets for pigs, it is important to consider the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The proper ratio should ensure that both minerals are maximally utilized in the bodies of the pigs.

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Effect of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and intestinal concentrations of volatile fatty acids in nursery pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets

Increasing the inclusion of dietary fiber in nursery pig diets may stimulate beneficial gut microbiota and reduce post-weaning diarrhea. However, the digestibility of nutrients and energy is decreased in high fiber diets. Nursery pigs fed diets high in fiber have been shown to have reduced ADFI and G:F.

Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) secrete a large amount and a wide variety of fiber degrading enzymes. It is thought that feeding DFM may offset some of the negative effects of  a high fiber diet. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of a Bacillus-based DFM will increase fermentation of dietary fiber and improve growth performance when fed to nursery pigs.

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Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Most swine diets must be supplemented with calcium because most plant ingredients commonly used in diets for pigs contain relatively little calcium. One way to add calcium is to include inorganic sources such as dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate; however, animal ingredients such as meat byproduct meals can also be used. These ingredients, often used as a protein source, are also a good source of calcium. To our knowledge, values for apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of calcium in animal sources have not been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the ATTD and STTD of calcium in four calcium sources of animal origin.

The secondary objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of microbial phytase to diets containing calcium sources of animal origin would increase the digestibility of calcium. Although animal sources do not contain phytate, swine diets are composed primarily of plant ingredients, and the phytate in those ingredients might form complexes with the calcium in the animal sources.

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Digestibility of energy in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is the main protein source used in diets for pigs in the United States, as well as most countries of the world, due to the high quality of the protein it provides. However, soybean meal also contains antinutritional factors that limit its use in weanling pig diets. Pigs do not secrete the enzyme needed for the hydrolysis of raffinose and stachyose, α-galactosidase, in the small intestine. Therefore, these oligosaccharides are not enzymatically digested, but are instead fermented in the small and large intestines. This results in decreased growth performance and increased incidence of diarrhea when fed to weanling pigs.

Oligosaccharides can be removed from soybean meal using an alcohol extraction process, creating soy protein concentrate. Soy protein concentrate has greater digestibility of most amino acids and greater concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than soybean meal. A new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced, which is produced using a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. The nutritional value of soy protein concentrate produced using this method has not been determined. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate and to compare these values to DE and ME in soybean meal.

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Digestibility of phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by extracting some of the non-protein components of soybean meal, including soluble carbohydrates, from soybean meal. These soluble carbohydrates include oligosaccharides, which reduce the tolerance of young pigs to conventional soybean meal. With the oligosaccharides removed, soy protein concentrate can be used as a source of protein in diets for weanling pigs.

Most soy protein concentrate is produced using an alcohol extraction process. However, a new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced, which uses a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in this new ingredient.

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Digestibility of amino acids in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein in diets fed to pigs. However, soybean meal contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides, which decrease nutrient availability and limit the amount of soybean meal that can be fed in weanling pig diets.

Soy protein concentrate is produced by processing soybean meal to remove some nonprotein components, including the soluble carbohydrates. This leaves soy protein concentrate with a greater concentration of crude protein and amino acids than soybean meal. The presence of oligosaccharides in soybean meal has been shown to reduce the tolerance of young pigs to conventional soybean meal, and therefore, animal proteins rather than soybean meal is often used in diets for young pigs. However, if the oligosaccharides and other antinutritional factors can be removed from soybean meal, it is possible to use soybean meal in diets for young pigs instead of animal proteins.

Typically, an alcohol extraction process has been used to remove soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal to create soy protein concentrate. However, a new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced. Nutrivance is produced using a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. The nutritional value of soy protein concentrate produced using this method has not been determined. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in this new source of soy protein concentrate.

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Calcium balance at different levels of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus in weanling pigs

Recent studies conducted in our laboratory have determined values for standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of calcium in feed ingredients fed to pigs. However, there is a lack of information about the requirement for STTD calcium in diets for pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure calcium balance at different levels of STTD calcium in diets fed to 11 to 25 kg pigs.

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Effect of particle size of calcium carbonate on growth performance in growing pigs

In poultry, the particle size of inorganic calcium sources has been shown to affect calcium retention and eggshell quality. However, little is known about the effect of particle size of inorganic calcium fed to pigs. Results of a previous experiment conducted in the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab indicated that calcium digestibility and retention were not affected by the particle size of supplemental calcium carbonate. A follow-up study was conducted to test the hypothesis that calcium carbonate particle does not affect growth performance by weanling pigs.

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Growth performance and bone mineralization in weanling pigs fed diets containing different levels of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus

It is important to include calcium and phosphorus in the diets in the proper proportions because the excess or deficiency of one mineral may affect the utilization of the other. Calcium requirements in the 2012 NRC are based on a model, which used a 2.15 ratio of total calcium to standardized total tract digestible (STTD) phosphorus. An optimal ratio of STTD calcium to STTD phosphorus has not been reported because not enough data exist on the standardized total tract digestibility of calcium. However, recent studies conducted by the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab have determined values for STTD calcium for several calcium sources. With these data, it is possible to determine the requirement for STTD calcium. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the requirement of STTD calcium to maximize growth performance and bone ash in 11 to 25 kg pigs.

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Determination of amino acid digestibility in soybean meal from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs

Soybeans grown in the northern United States are exposed to fewer growing days and hours of sunlight than soybeans grown elsewhere in the U.S. As a result, soybeans grown in the northern U.S. fix less nitrogen, and have a lower concentration of crude protein, than other U.S. soybeans. However, the concentrations of particular amino acids, particularly indispensable amino acids, are more important for the purposes of diet formulation than the concentration of crude protein. The concentration of amino acids in soybeans grown in different parts of the U.S. has not been determined.

The amount of amino acids in soybean meal that are available to the pig also depends on digestibility, but no research has been conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids among soybean meal produced in different regions of the U.S. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids and the concentration of SID amino acids in soybean meal produced in different regions within the United States and fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of production area and microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs

The area in which soybeans are grown is known to affect various aspects of the chemical composition of soybean meal produced from those soybeans. However, it is not known if there is a difference in the concentration of phytate, and therefore in phosphorus digestibility, among soybeans from different growing areas. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of phytate and the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal produced from soybeans grown in four different areas in the United States. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of microbial phytase on STTD of P in soybean meal from each of the four areas.

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Concentrations of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in soybean meal from Argentina, Brazil, China, Thailand and the United States fed to broilers

The nutritional value of soybean meal from different sources may vary due to differences in processing techniques and environmental conditions such as growing areas, soil type, and variety of soybeans. The Philippines import soybean for livestock feed from many different countries. However, the nutritional quality of soybean meal from these different origins has not been compared. It is important for producers formulating diets in the Philippines to know whether the same values can be used in formulations for all sources of imported soybean meal. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine the concentrations of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by broilers fed soybean meal from Argentina, Brazil, China, Thailand, and the United States.

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Effect of Sal CURB® on digestibility of energy, amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus in growing pigs

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can be spread via contaminated feed. Treating PEDV-contaminated feed with formaldehyde has been shown to prevent infection in pigs that consume the feed. However, concerns have been raised about the effect of treatment with formaldehyde on the nutritional value of feedstuffs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding a formaldehyde-based feed disinfectant to the diet on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, gross energy (GE), calcium, and phosphorus in nursery pigs.

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Effects of xylanase on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice co-products fed to weaning pigs

Several co-products from rice processing can be used as animal feed. Brown rice is the whole rice grain that is left after the hull layer has been removed, leaving the germ, starchy endosperm, and bran. Rice bran is the outer brown layer of brown rice, which is removed to produce white rice. It is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. Broken rice, or brewer's rice, consists of white rice grains that have been damaged in processing. It is high in starch and contains little fat, fiber, or protein (Table 1).

Non–starch polysaccharides (NSPs), primarily arabinoxylan and cellulose, comprise 20 to 25% of defatted rice bran. NSPs reduce nutrient absorption and energy digestibility. Addition of exogenous xylanase to wheat co-products, which also have high concentration of NSPs, may improve digestibility of energy, but there is limited information about the effects of adding exogenous xylanases to rice co-products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect on concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of adding exogenous xylanase to diets containing full fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, or broken rice.

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Effects of fiber on the optimal threonine:lysine ratio for 25 to 50 kg growing gilts

Use of high-fiber, low-cost ingredients, such as co-products from grain processing industries, in swine diets is increasing. Pigs fed diets containing high levels of fiber have increased intestinal mass due to increased amount of microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Therefore, they also have increased endogenous loss of amino acids in the form of mucins, the proteins that line the intestinal tract. The abrasiveness of fiber stimulates the secretion of mucins as well. These factors may cause the threonine requirement to be increased in high fiber diets, because threonine is present in large amounts in mucins. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fiber on the optimum threonine:lysine ratio (Thr:Lys) in 25 to 50 kg growing gilts.

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Effect of particle size in calcium carbonate on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility and retention of calcium by growing pigs

Particle size is an important consideration for some feed ingredients in pig diets. Reducing the particle size of cereal grains and soybean meal in diets fed to pigs improves digestibility of energy, amino acids, and other nutrients, because feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work.

The particle size of inorganic calcium sources has been shown to affect calcium retention in poultry. Particle sizes of 1.00 mm or greater are recommended to optimize calcium retention and eggshell quality in laying hens, but coarse particle sizes result in reduced calcium retention in broiler chicks.  However, little is known about the effect of particle size of calcium sources fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test different particle sizes of calcium carbonate and determine which size optimizes calcium digestibility and retention by growing pigs.

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Effects of pelleting and extrusion on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets fed to pigs

Pelleting and extrusion are technologies that have been used in livestock feeding to improve nutrient digestibility and feed conversion. Recent research concluded that reduced performance of pigs fed diets containing high concentrations of fiber was ameliorated if the diets were pelleted. Extrusion is also of benefit in high fiber diets, because it may increase the solubility of dietary fiber. It is possible that the benefits of extrusion and pelleting are greater in high fiber diets than in low fiber diets, but this hypothesis has not been investigated. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine effects of extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber.

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Phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

After corn and wheat, rice is the third most widely grown cereal grain worldwide. Most rice is processed to produce polished white rice for human consumption, and several co-products result from this processing. First, the outer husk, or hull, of the grain is removed. The dehulled grain, consisting of the bran, germ, and endosperm, is brown rice. To produce white rice, the brown rice is milled further and the bran is removed. Rice bran is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. Rice bran is sometimes combined with rice hulls to produce rice mill feed. During milling of the rice, some kernels may get broken and cannot be used for human consumption. These broken kernels are known as broken rice or brewers rice and may also be used in animal feeding.

The phosphorus content of rice is similar to that of corn. Most of the phosphorus in rice is in the bran fraction, and 80-85% of the phosphorus in rice bran is bound to phytate, which limits its digestibility by pigs. Microbial phytase can be used in swine diets to increase the digestibility of phytate-bound phosphorus. However, limited information exists about phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products and how it is affected by microbial phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in brown rice, broken rice, full fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), and rice mill feed fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of microbial phytase on phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products.

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Effects of extrusion of corn and oats on the digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fiber in diets fed to pigs

In extrusion, cereal grains are processed under conditions of heat and pressure. Like other types of heat treatment, extrusion may reduce the concentration of antinutritional factors. Extrusion also gelatinizes starch, improving its digestibility. Improved digestibility of starch should, in turn, lead to an increase in digestible energy. Extrusion has also been shown in some studies to solubilize the insoluble fraction of the fiber which would also increase fiber digestibility and digestible energy.

Corn is a high starch ingredient, while oats are high in fiber. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of extruding corn and oats on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and fiber when fed to growing pigs.

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Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the ethanol industry and is often used as an economical source of energy and protein in swine diets. Conventional DDGS contains approximately 27% crude protein, 10% fat, 9% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and 25% (NDF). The concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in conventional sources of DDGS are approximately 3,500 and 3,350 kcal/kg, respectively. However, there is significant variation in the way different plants produce DDGS. For example, in recent years ethanol plants have begun extracting oil from DDGS to sell to the biodiesel industry. This results in DDGS with its fat content reduced to approximately 6 to 9%, which may result in lower concentrations of DE and ME.

If pigs are fed diets containing decreased levels of DE and ME relative to conventional DDGS, a reduction in growth performance may result. This would make DDGS a less economical feedstuff. An experiment was conducted to determine the variability of DE and ME in DDGS produced in and around Illinois.

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