Research Reports

Effects of using palm kernel expellers in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs

Palm kernel expellers is a coproduct of the production of palm kernel oil. Unlike palm kernel meal, which is produced after the oil is removed from the fruits of oil palms using solvent extraction, palm kernel expellers are produced via mechanical extraction. The lysine content of palm kernel expellers is low relative to soybean meal. Additionally, the high fiber content of palm kernel expellers means that it contains less digestible and metabolizable energy than soybean meal or corn. These factors limit the inclusion rate of palm kernel expellers in swine diets.  However, despite these limitations, palm kernel expellers can provide significant protein in swine diets and may be used to reduce feed costs.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that palm kernel expellers may replace some corn and soybean meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

Publication Type: 

Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is the defatted meal that remains after oil has been extracted from the seeds of the rapeseed plant, Brassica napus.  Canola meal is high in crude protein and amino acids relative to most plant protein sources, and the amino acids in canola meal are well digested by pigs. However, it is also relatively high in fiber, which reduces energy digestibility and digestible energy concentration. New varieties of Brassica napus with a thinner seed coat have been hybridized, which contain less fiber and more protein than conventional rapeseed. The meal produced from these varieties is known as high protein canola meal. No data exist for the digestibility of energy in this source of high protein canola mealwhen fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of high protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2) fed to growing pigs, and to compare these values with values for conventional canola meal (CM-CV) and soybean meal (SBM).

Publication Type: 

Effect on amino acid digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also be improved. Previous research at the University of Illinois indicated that particle size had no effect on the digestibility of phosphorus, but that decreasing particle size increased energy digestibility in corn in the range of 338.5 μm to 864.5 μm.

However, it is not known if reduced particle size also increases amino acid digestibility. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in corn that was ground to different particle sizes and fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility of alternative animal protein sources fed to weanling pigs

Animal protein sources such as fish meal and protein plasma are often used in diets fed to weanling pigs because the amino acids in these sources are highly digestible and because animal protein sources do not contain the anti-nutritional factors present in soybean meal. However, the cost of fish meal has increased in recent years and there is, therefore, a need for less expensive alternatives.

Chicken meal and and poultry by-product meal are protein ingredients that have a concentration of amino acids similar to that of fish meal. Poultry by-product meal is produced from the offal of carcasses of slaughtered poultry and includes feet, necks, undeveloped eggs, and intestines. Chicken meal is prepared from clean flesh and skin of chickens without or with bone derived from the whole carcass of poultry. The quality of chicken meal and poultry by-product meal depends on the quality of the rendered parts to produce them. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, and AV-E Digest is produced by enzymatically hydrolyzing whole spent hens and extruded egg albumins. Insufficient data exist on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in these ingredients.  Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E Digest when fed to weanling pigs and to compare these values with values obtained for soybean meal.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of using copra meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs

Copra meal is a coproduct of the production of coconut oil. Although the amino acid profile and digestibility in copra meal are less favorable than in soybean meal, it can provide significant protein and energy in swine diets and may be used to reduce feed costs.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that copra meal may replace some corn and soybean meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

Publication Type: 

Effect on phosphorous and energy digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also  improved. Generating specific data on energy and nutrient digestibility will help determine the optimal particle size for feed ingredients.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and to measure the apparent (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus by growing pigs fed diets containing corn that was ground to different particle sizes.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of using palm kernel meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs

Palm kernel meal is a coproduct of the production of palm kernel oil. Although the amino acid profile and digestibility in palm kernel meal are less favorable than in soybean meal, it can provide significant protein in swine diets and may be used to reduce feed costs.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that palm kernel meal may replace some corn and soybean meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Rapeseed which has been hybridized to be low in both unpalatable glucosinolates and toxic erucic acid is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola or 00-rapeseeds in two ways. Solvent extraction results in the production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal, while mechanical expelling results in the production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers. The meals and expellers have high concentrations of crude protein and amino acids, and can be used as protein sources in swine diets. An experiment was conductedto compare crude protein and amino digestibility between North American canola meal and European 00-rapeseed meal, and between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Protein sources of animal origin provide highly digestible protein in diets for weanling pigs. Chicken meal consists primarily of skin, flesh, and sometimes bones from processed birds. Poultry by-product meal contains offal from processed chickens, including  feet, necks, beaks, undeveloped eggs, and intestinal contents. AV-E digest consists of enzymatically hydrolyzed spent hens and extruded egg albumin, mixed with a soybean meal carrier. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, which are used in the production of the drug heparin. There is a lack of data on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in all of these ingredients, which limits their use in diets fed to weanling pigs.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E digest, and to compare these values with soybean meal.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of fat concentration in distillers dried grains with solubles on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product of the rapidly growing ethanol industry. DDGS has been increasingly used for swine diets because of its affordability and nutritive value. Corn DDGS is high in energy, amino acids, and digestible phosphorus.

In the last few years, more ethanol plants have started  to use centrifugation to extract oil from DDGS for use in the production of biodiesel. The resulting DDGS products contain less fat than conventional DDGS. Reduced-fat DDGS products would be expected to have decreased digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy concentrations compared with  conventional DDGS, but energy values for these products have not yet been reported.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in three sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) containing different fat concentrations. In addition, the effect of supplementing diets containing reduced-fat DDGS products with corn oil to increase DE and ME concentrations was determined.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Phosphorus digestibility in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the use of corn in the production of food for humans. Only limited published information is available on the digestibility of phosphorus in corn co-products derived from the human food industry.

Phosphorus from plant sources is often bound to phytate, which decreases the availability of the phosphorus to the pigs because pigs do not produce the enzyme phytase. The addition of microbial phytase to diets containing corn and soybean meal increases phosphorus digestibility in these ingredients. However, no data have been published on the effect of adding phytase to diets containing hominy feed,  bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal.

Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values to the values obtained for corn and DDGS. The effect of the addition of microbial phytase to the diets on the digestibility of phosphorus in the experimental ingredients was also measured.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable amino acids to the animals.
The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

Oilseeds and oilseed meals also provide phosphorus to the diet. However, most of the phosphorus in these sources is bound to phytate, and is not available to pigs. An experiment was performed to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products, and to discover how the addition of phytase influences the STTD of phosphorus. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium and the effect of adding phytase on ATTD of calcium were also measured.

Publication Type: 

Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in 4 sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.

It has been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure.

There is no information about the digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal. There also is no data comparing the digestibility of energy in canola meal processed at low temperatures versus high temperatures. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high protein, high-temperature-processed, low-temperature-processed, and commercial canola meals, and to compare these values with the DE and ME in corn and soybean meal.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Energy concentration in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable AA to the animals.

The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

There are no recent data on energy digestibility in canola, cotton, and sunflower products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in canola seeds (CS), canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seeds (SFS), sunflower meal (SFM), and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM-DH), and to compare these values to the DE and ME in soybean meal (SBM).

Publication Type: 

Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility of high protein, low oligosaccharide, and conventional full fat soybeans fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the most commonly used protein source in swine diets in the United States. In addition to conventional soybeans, researchers have bred varieties of soybeans to meet various nutritional needs of pigs. For example, soybeans low in oligosaccharides have been developed for feeding to weanling pigs, who cannot digest the oligosaccharides in conventional soybeans and may suffer reduced performance and even illness as a result. High protein soybean varieties have also been developed.

Existing information on the nutritional value of high protein and low oligosaccharides soybean varieties in swine diets is incomplete. There is no difference in digestible energy, metabolizable energy, or digestibility of crude protein and amino acids between non-dehulled high protein full fat soybeans (FFSB-HP) and non-dehulled conventional full fat soybeans (FFSB-CV). There are, however, no data on the digestibility of protein, amino acids, and energy in dehulled FFSB-HP, although most soybeans are de-hulled prior to being used in diets fed to pigs. Similarly, there is no difference in digestible and metabolizable energy or amino acid digestibility between soybean meals produced from low oligosaccharide soybeans and conventional varieties, but there are no data on values for low oligosaccharide full fat soybeans (FFSB-LO).Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids as well as values for digestible and metabolizable energy in de-hulled conventional, high protein, and low oligosaccharide full fat soybeans.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. The oil is extracted for use in cooking and agriculture, leaving a high-protein meal that can be used in livestock feeding. Although the concentration of protein and amino acids and the amino acid profile of canola meal is less desirable than that of soybean meal, its relatively low cost may make it an attractive option for producers. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.  However, there is no information about the digestibility of amino acid in high protein canola meal when fed to pigs.

It has also been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure. There are, however, no comparative data between meals produced using the traditional high temperature procedure and meals produced using the low-temperature procedure.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and apparent and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs

When formulating diets for pigs, it is more accurate to use values for standardized or true nutrient digestibility than values for apparent nutrient digestibility because the former are additive in mixed diets. No values for standardized or true total tract digestibility of calcium in pigs have been reported. The true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of a nutrient is calculated by correcting apparently total tract digestibility (ATTD) by total endogenous losses, which may be estimated using a regression procedure. To our knowledge, no measurements of the endogenous loss of calcium in pigs have been reported. An experiment was, therefore,  performed to measure endogenous loss of calcium and to determine TTTD of calcium in growing pigs, and to investigate if  the addition of microbial phytase to the diets affects TTTD of calcium. In addition, calcium retention was measured in pigs fed diets containing varying levels of calcium with or without microbial phytase.

Publication Type: 

Evaluation of the nutritional value of sources of canola meal fed to pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Natural rapeseed contains glucosinolates, which make feed unpalatable, and erucic acid, which is toxic to animals. These anti-nutritional factors are heat-stable, and therefore, cannot be removed by heat-treating rapeseed. Rapeseed, which is low in both glucosinolates and erucic acid, has been produced by hybridization, and is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola and rapeseeds via solvent extraction or mechanically expelling. The solvent extraction process results in production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal and mechanical expelling of oil results in production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers.

The objective of this study was to compare the chemical compositions of canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal from Europe and to compare the composition of 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.  Ten samples of canola meal were collected from crushing plants in North America, and eleven samples of 00-rapeseed meal and five samples of 00-rapeseed expellers were collected from crushing plants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for energy, fat, sugar, starch, fiber, crude protein, amino acids, and minerals.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Comparative amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

The U.S. slaughter industry produces blood co-products that may be used in diets for nursery pigs because of the high concentration and quality of protein they contain. The quality of protein in blood products can differ based on the processing techniques used.  In particular, products which are heated to too high a temperature during processing can sustain heat damage to amino acids due to the Maillard reaction. Lysine is particularly susceptible to heat damage.

An experiment was performed to determine the comparative amino acid digestibility in five different blood products fed to weanling pigs. Three are spray-dried products, which are dried quickly at temperatures of up to 225˚C. Spray-dried animal blood (SDAB) is manufactured from whole blood containing an anticoagulant. Spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) is manufactured from blood which has had the plasma separated out by centrifugation. Spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) are the red blood cells left after plasma separation. In addition to the spray-dried products, two sources of blood meal were tested – one from an avian source (avian blood meal, or ABM) and one from a porcine source (porcine blood meal, or PBM). These blood meals were dried using drum driers instead of spraydriers.

Publication Type: 

Pages