Research Reports

Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in 4 sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.

It has been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure.

There is no information about the digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal. There also is no data comparing the digestibility of energy in canola meal processed at low temperatures versus high temperatures. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high protein, high-temperature-processed, low-temperature-processed, and commercial canola meals, and to compare these values with the DE and ME in corn and soybean meal.

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Energy concentration in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable AA to the animals.

The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

There are no recent data on energy digestibility in canola, cotton, and sunflower products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in canola seeds (CS), canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seeds (SFS), sunflower meal (SFM), and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM-DH), and to compare these values to the DE and ME in soybean meal (SBM).

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility of high protein, low oligosaccharide, and conventional full fat soybeans fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the most commonly used protein source in swine diets in the United States. In addition to conventional soybeans, researchers have bred varieties of soybeans to meet various nutritional needs of pigs. For example, soybeans low in oligosaccharides have been developed for feeding to weanling pigs, who cannot digest the oligosaccharides in conventional soybeans and may suffer reduced performance and even illness as a result. High protein soybean varieties have also been developed.

Existing information on the nutritional value of high protein and low oligosaccharides soybean varieties in swine diets is incomplete. There is no difference in digestible energy, metabolizable energy, or digestibility of crude protein and amino acids between non-dehulled high protein full fat soybeans (FFSB-HP) and non-dehulled conventional full fat soybeans (FFSB-CV). There are, however, no data on the digestibility of protein, amino acids, and energy in dehulled FFSB-HP, although most soybeans are de-hulled prior to being used in diets fed to pigs. Similarly, there is no difference in digestible and metabolizable energy or amino acid digestibility between soybean meals produced from low oligosaccharide soybeans and conventional varieties, but there are no data on values for low oligosaccharide full fat soybeans (FFSB-LO).Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids as well as values for digestible and metabolizable energy in de-hulled conventional, high protein, and low oligosaccharide full fat soybeans.

 

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Amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. The oil is extracted for use in cooking and agriculture, leaving a high-protein meal that can be used in livestock feeding. Although the concentration of protein and amino acids and the amino acid profile of canola meal is less desirable than that of soybean meal, its relatively low cost may make it an attractive option for producers. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.  However, there is no information about the digestibility of amino acid in high protein canola meal when fed to pigs.

It has also been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure. There are, however, no comparative data between meals produced using the traditional high temperature procedure and meals produced using the low-temperature procedure.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

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Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and apparent and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs

When formulating diets for pigs, it is more accurate to use values for standardized or true nutrient digestibility than values for apparent nutrient digestibility because the former are additive in mixed diets. No values for standardized or true total tract digestibility of calcium in pigs have been reported. The true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of a nutrient is calculated by correcting apparently total tract digestibility (ATTD) by total endogenous losses, which may be estimated using a regression procedure. To our knowledge, no measurements of the endogenous loss of calcium in pigs have been reported. An experiment was, therefore,  performed to measure endogenous loss of calcium and to determine TTTD of calcium in growing pigs, and to investigate if  the addition of microbial phytase to the diets affects TTTD of calcium. In addition, calcium retention was measured in pigs fed diets containing varying levels of calcium with or without microbial phytase.

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Evaluation of the nutritional value of sources of canola meal fed to pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Natural rapeseed contains glucosinolates, which make feed unpalatable, and erucic acid, which is toxic to animals. These anti-nutritional factors are heat-stable, and therefore, cannot be removed by heat-treating rapeseed. Rapeseed, which is low in both glucosinolates and erucic acid, has been produced by hybridization, and is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola and rapeseeds via solvent extraction or mechanically expelling. The solvent extraction process results in production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal and mechanical expelling of oil results in production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers.

The objective of this study was to compare the chemical compositions of canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal from Europe and to compare the composition of 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.  Ten samples of canola meal were collected from crushing plants in North America, and eleven samples of 00-rapeseed meal and five samples of 00-rapeseed expellers were collected from crushing plants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for energy, fat, sugar, starch, fiber, crude protein, amino acids, and minerals.

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Comparative amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

The U.S. slaughter industry produces blood co-products that may be used in diets for nursery pigs because of the high concentration and quality of protein they contain. The quality of protein in blood products can differ based on the processing techniques used.  In particular, products which are heated to too high a temperature during processing can sustain heat damage to amino acids due to the Maillard reaction. Lysine is particularly susceptible to heat damage.

An experiment was performed to determine the comparative amino acid digestibility in five different blood products fed to weanling pigs. Three are spray-dried products, which are dried quickly at temperatures of up to 225˚C. Spray-dried animal blood (SDAB) is manufactured from whole blood containing an anticoagulant. Spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) is manufactured from blood which has had the plasma separated out by centrifugation. Spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) are the red blood cells left after plasma separation. In addition to the spray-dried products, two sources of blood meal were tested – one from an avian source (avian blood meal, or ABM) and one from a porcine source (porcine blood meal, or PBM). These blood meals were dried using drum driers instead of spraydriers.

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Comparative amino acid digestibility in feather meal fed to pigs

Hydrolyzed feather meal is a co-product of the rendering industry that can be used as a protein source in diets fed to pigs. However, the variability in quality and digestibility between different sources of hydrolyzed feather meal has limited its use in swine diets. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent (AID) and the standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in four sources of hydrolyzed feather meal. Because blood is sometimes added to feather meal during processing, the experiment also evaluated the effects on crude protein and amino acid digestibility of the addition of blood to feather meal.

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Effects of replacing chicken meal or poultry by-product meal with fermented soybean meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Animal proteins such as milk products, blood products, fish meal, chicken meal (CM), and poultry by-product meal (PBM) are usually used as amino acid sources in diets for weanling pigs because the nutrients in these ingredients are highly digestible and because they do not contain the anti-nutritional factors that are present in conventional soybean meal. Due to the cost of animal protein sources, other alternatives have been investigated. One alternative is soybean meal which has been fermented to destroy antinutritional factors and increase protein digestibility. Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) has been shown to be able to replace milk, blood proteins, and fish meal in diets fed to weanling pigs. However, there are no data on whether or not fermented soybean meal can replace chicken meal and poultry by-product meal. An experiment was, therefore, performed to test the hypothesis that fermented soybean meal can replace chicken meal and poultry by-product meal in diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

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Effects of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Animal proteins such as milk products, blood products, fish meal, chicken meal, and poultry by-product meal are usually used as amino acid sources in diets for weanling pigs because the nutrients in these ingredients are highly digestible and because they do not contain the anti-nutritional factors that are present  in conventional soybean meal. Due to the cost of animal protein sources, other alternatives have been investigated. One alternative is soybean meal which has been fermented to destroy antinutritional factors and increase protein digestibility. Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) may partly replace milk and blood proteins in diets fed to weanling pigs from seven to 21 days post-weaning. However, there are no data on the inclusion of more than 10% FSBM in diets fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FSBM may be included in diets fed to weanling pigs to replace all animal protein sources.

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Amino acid digestibility in Lemna Protein Concentrate fed to weanling pigs

Lemna Protein Concentrate is derived from the leaves of duckweed, one of several rapidly-growing aquatic plants of the genus Lemna. Duckweed has a number of advantages as a protein source. It is relatively inexpensive to produce and requires less growing area and fewer inputs than other plant protein sources such as soybean products. It also contains relatively little fiber, making it a highly digestible feed ingredient.

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids and crude protein in Lemna Protein Concentrate fed to weanling pigs and to compare these values to digestibility values obtained for soybean meal and fish meal.

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Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition or pork fat quality

Corn germ is a co-product of the wet milling industry that is available for use in swine diets to partially replace the more expensive corn grain. Results of arecent experiment indicated that including 15% corn germ in diets containing 30% DDGS had no negative effects on pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. However, it is not known if greater quantities of corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to determine if greater levels of corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs without negatively affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, muscle and fat quality, or belly quality. The experiment also determined if the presence of DDGS in the diets influences the responses to the inclusion of corn germ.

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal fed to pigs undergoes heat treatment to destroy trypsin inhibitors and other antinutritional factors that impair the digestion of protein and thus reduce performance. However, heat treatment can damage nutrients as well. In particular, the Maillard reaction reduces amino acid digestibility by combining amino acids with sugars to produce biologically unavailable compounds.

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in pigs fed soybean meal that had been heat treated in varying ways and for varying times. Conventional soybean meal was divided into four batches. One batch was not heated; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 15 minutes; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 30 minutes; and the last one was oven dried at 125°C for 30 minutes. Ten growing barrows were fed a total of five different diets. The experimental diets contained 40% each of the four different soybean meals being tested. An N-free diet was also formulated and fed to measure the basal endogenous loss of protein and amino acids.

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate fed to weanling pigs

Whey powder is a co-product of the cheese industry, and consists primarily of lactose and protein. The inclusion of whey powder in weanling pig diets improve growth performance; this is believed to be due to the lactose fraction. Because of the demand for whey protein from the human food industry, the protein is sometimes extracted from whey powder. The resulting product is called whey permeate.

Few values for digestible and metabolizable energy in whey permeate have been reported. In addition, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in these ingredients has not been reported. Therefore, two experiments were conducted: the first, to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate; and the second, to determine the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in the same ingredients.

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Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry composed primarily of the offal and bones of slaughtered livestock, fat from unmarketable animal tissues, unsellable retail meat products, and whole condemned carcasses (excluding hair, blood, hooves, horns, and contents of the gastrointestinal tract).  MBM is traditionally used as an animal protein source in swine diets, but because of its high concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, it can also replace inorganic phosphates in swine diets.

The proportions of soft tissue and bone in different sources of MBM can vary widely. Because mineral digestibility differs in bone and soft tissue, the variation in composition of MBM sources leads to a variation in mineral digestibility values.

An experiment was conducted to 1) determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus and the ATTD of calcium in 8 different sources of MBM,  2) estimate variation among MBM sources, and 3) develop equations to predict the concentrations of digestible phosphorus and calcium in MBM.

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Apparent and standardized digestibility of phosphorus in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal by weanling pigs

Dried Fermentation Biomass (Ajinomoto Heartland LLC, Chicago, IL) is a co-product of the commercial production of lysine. Peptone 50 and PEP2+ (TechMix LLC, Stewart MN) are co-products of heparin production for the human pharmaceutical industry. The latter two products are produced from hydrolyzed pig intestines that are co-dried with a vegetable protein (Peptone 50) or enzymatically processed vegetable proteins (PEP2+). These co-products are possible replacements for fish meal in weanling pig diets.

An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD)  of phosphorus in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

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Concentration of energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a rich source of digestible amino acids for pigs. However, soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that make soybeans and conventional soybean meal unsuitable for feeding to weanling pigs in great quantities. Therefore, animal protein is usually included in starter diets for pigs. Because soy protein is less expensive than the animal protein, strategies to reduce the antinutritional factors in soy products have been explored. Fermentation of soybean meal with bacteria such as Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus subtilis eliminates many antinutritional factors, and studies have shown that fermented soybean meal is well-tolerated by weanling pigs. However, there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and amino acids in fermented soybean meal. Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to measure the concentration of DE and ME and the digestibility of amino acids in fermented soybean meal and to compare these values to values obtained in conventional soybean meal and fish meal.

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Digestibility of energy in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried Fermentation Biomass (Ajinomoto Heartland LLC) is a co-product of the commercial production of lysine. Peptone 50 and PEP2+ (TechMix LLC) are co-products of heparin production for the human pharmaceutical industry. The latter two products are produced from hydrolyzed pig intestines that are co-dried with a vegetable protein (Peptone 50) or enzymatically processed vegetable proteins (PEP2+). These co-products are possible replacements for fish meal in weanling pig diets.

An experiment was conducted to measure the digestibility of energy and the concentration of digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

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Amino acid digestibility in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, and PEP2+ fed to weanling pigs

Dried Fermentation Biomass (Ajinomoto Heartland LLC) is a co-product of the commercial production of lysine. Peptone 50 and PEP2+ (TechMix LLC) are co-products of heparin production by the human pharmaceutical industry. The latter two are produced from hydrolyzed pig intestines co-dried with a vegetable protein (Peptone 50) or enzymatically processed vegetable proteins (PEP2+). These co-products are being investigated as possible cost-effective replacements for fish meal in weanling pig diets.

An experiment was performed to measure the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of CP and amino acids by weanling pigs in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, and PEP2+, respectively, and to compare these values to digestibility values obtained in fish meal.

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