Research Reports

Effect of the form of dietary fat and the concentration of dietary fiber on digestibility of fat by growing pigs

To determine true digestibility of nutrients, endogenous losses from the digestive tract must be measured. Because consistent values for endogenous losses of fat (ELF) in pigs have yet to be determined, the calculation of fat digestibility has mostly been limited to apparent digestibility.

Endogenous losses of fat may be influenced by the form of fat – extracted or intact – and by the concentration of fiber in the diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of the form of dietary fat on ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in growing pigs. To do so, it was necessary to measure endogenous losses of fat and to correct for the difference in amounts of dietary fiber in diets containing extracted fat and diets containing intact fat.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Blood meal and spray dried plasma protein are often included in diets fed to weanling pigs, and blood products are considered excellent sources of protein. The objective of this research was to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibililty (STTD) of phosphorus in spray dried animal plasma, porcine blood meal, and avian blood meal fed to weanling pigs. References such as the NRC typically provide relative bioavailability values for phosphorus rather than digestibility values. Relative bioavailability values, however, depend on the standard (e.g., monosodium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate) to which the availability is compared. Thus, these values are believed not to be additive in mixed diets. It is believed that STTD values are additive in mixed diets, and therefore will enable producers to formulate diets that accurately meet the phosphorus requirement of pigs without creating unneccesary excesses that are excreted in the manure.

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Amino acid digestibility in blood meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried blood meal is commonly used as a high-quality protein source in nursery pig diets. Growth studies have indicated that blood meal can be a better protein source than dried skim milk, fish meal, and soy protein concentrate.  However, the growth effects of blood meal vary across studies; this may be due to differences in protein quality.

Limited data exist on digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in blood meal produced from different species and with different drying methods.  Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in two sources of blood meal.

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Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers coproducts fed to growing pigs

Fiber digestibility is one factor in the efficiency of energy utilization in fibrous feed ingredients. Fiber can be digested via fermentation in the ileum or in the hindgut.

Fecal matter and ileal digesta from pigs fed one of 29 different diets were analyzed to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary fiber in different sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and to calculate hindgut fermentation (HGF) of dietary fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility of amino acids in novel soybean products

Raw soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors (TI) and lectins.  The production of soybean meal involves a heating step, which reduces these anti-nutritional factors. However, conventional soybean meal contains compounds which can cause digestive disturbances in weanling pigs. Soybean meal is therefore limited in pig starter diets. Other protein sources, such as fish meal, casein, and soy protein isolate, are used for young pigs.

Two new soybean products were recently introduced to the U.S. feed market.  Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM) are believed to have a lower concentration of antinutritional factors and a higher concentration of crude protein and amino acids than conventional soybean meal.  They are also believed to be better tolerated by young pigs. However, not much is known about the digestibility of the protein in these two products.

This experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs of FSBM, ESBM, conventional de-hulled soybean meal, fish meal, casein, and soy protein isolate.

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Evaluation of growth performance and carcass characteristics in pigs fed two varieties of genetically modified corn

Most corn hybrids grown in the US are genetically modified to resist certain pests or to tolerate certain herbicides. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the nutritional value of corn that is genetically modified for pest resistance, but there are no published reports about feeding corn that has been modified for both pest resistance and insecticide tolerance to pigs. Investigation into the nutritional value of such corn is, however, warranted, because the use of crops with multiply stacked traits is rapidly increasing; approximately 35 million acres of crops with double- and triple-stacked traits were planted in the United States in 2006.

Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine if the nutritional value of corn grain with multiple genetically modified traits is different from that of nontransgenic corn. The hypothesis in both experiments was that pigs fed transgenic corn would not differ in growth performance or carcass characteristics from pigs fed nontransgenic corn.

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A novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains

Buhler, Inc. of Minneapolis, Minnesota has developed a new fractionation process to more efficiently produce ethanol from corn. In this process, the germ is removed from the corn grain and the degermed grain is passed through roller mills and aspirators to remove the bran. The endosperm is fermented to produce ethanol, and the rest of the grain is left as a co-product, referred to here as HP-DDGBuhler.

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Digestibility of amino acids in corn and corn co-products fed to growing pigs

The objective of this experiment was to measure the standardized ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in hominy feed, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal and to compare these values to the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids amino acids in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Results showed that the digestibility of most amino acids were greater (P < 0.05) in hominy feed and in corn gluten meal than in the other ingredients, whereas the digestibility of most amino acids in corn gluten feed was lower (P < 0.05) than in the other ingredients.

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