Soy products used in animal nutrition

Full fat soybeans (FFSB)

Whole full-fat soybeans can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet, but the beans have to be heat treated prior to feeding to inactivate trypsin inhibitors.

Dehulled soybean meal (SBM-DH)

Conventional solvent-extracted dehulled soybean meal is produced by extracting the fat from soy flour with a solvent, and then toasting to deactivate trypsin inhibitors and lectins.

Nondehulled SBM (SBM-NDH)

SBM-NDH is not dehulled prior to solvent extraction of fat. It contains more fiber and less protein than SBM-DH.

Extruded-expelled SBM (SBM-EE)

SBM-EE is produced by extruding intact or dehulled soybeans and mechanically expelling the oil. SBM-EE contains more fat than solvent-extracted soybean meal because expelling is less efficient in removing oil from the soybeans. Protein digestibility is improved due to the higher fat content.

Enzyme treated SBM (ESBM)

ESBM is produced by treating SBM-DH for several hours with a proprietary blend of enzymes. Enzyme treatment reduces the concentrations of oligosaccharides and allergenic proteins to create a product that can be fed to weanling pigs.

Fermented SBM (FSBM)

FSBM is produced by inoculating conventional soybean meal with the bacterium Aspergillus oryzae or other microbes. Fermenting soybean meal eliminates oligosaccharides and reduces the concentration of antigens in the meal. Therefore, FSBM can be used instead of animal proteins in weanling pig diets.

Soy protein concentrate (SPC)

SPC is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal. Most insoluble fiber remains in soy protein concentrate. SPC contains at least 65% crude protein. If extraction is performed at temperatures greater than 50°C, SPC is tolerated well by weanling pigs.

Soy protein isolate (SPI)

SPI is produced by solubilizing the protein in soybean meal with water and precipitating the protein from the solution. This process removes the fat and carbohydrate components from the product. SPI contains at least 80% crude protein. It is not usually fed to pigs due to its high cost.