Rice bran

Effect of diets formulated based on standardized total tract digestible phosphorus fed to growing pigs

Abelilla, J. J., R. C. Sulabo, H. H. Stein, S. P. Acda, A. A. Angeles, M. C. R. Oliveros, and F. E. Merca. 2015. Effect of diets formulated based on standardized total tract digestible phosphorus fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):52-53 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of xylanase on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice co-products fed to weaning pigs

Several co-products from rice processing can be used as animal feed. Brown rice is the whole rice grain that is left after the hull layer has been removed, leaving the germ, starchy endosperm, and bran. Rice bran is the outer brown layer of brown rice, which is removed to produce white rice. It is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. Broken rice, or brewer's rice, consists of white rice grains that have been damaged in processing. It is high in starch and contains little fat, fiber, or protein (Table 1).

Non–starch polysaccharides (NSPs), primarily arabinoxylan and cellulose, comprise 20 to 25% of defatted rice bran. NSPs reduce nutrient absorption and energy digestibility. Addition of exogenous xylanase to wheat co-products, which also have high concentration of NSPs, may improve digestibility of energy, but there is limited information about the effects of adding exogenous xylanases to rice co-products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect on concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of adding exogenous xylanase to diets containing full fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, or broken rice.

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Phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

After corn and wheat, rice is the third most widely grown cereal grain worldwide. Most rice is processed to produce polished white rice for human consumption, and several co-products result from this processing. First, the outer husk, or hull, of the grain is removed. The dehulled grain, consisting of the bran, germ, and endosperm, is brown rice. To produce white rice, the brown rice is milled further and the bran is removed. Rice bran is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. Rice bran is sometimes combined with rice hulls to produce rice mill feed. During milling of the rice, some kernels may get broken and cannot be used for human consumption. These broken kernels are known as broken rice or brewers rice and may also be used in animal feeding.

The phosphorus content of rice is similar to that of corn. Most of the phosphorus in rice is in the bran fraction, and 80-85% of the phosphorus in rice bran is bound to phytate, which limits its digestibility by pigs. Microbial phytase can be used in swine diets to increase the digestibility of phytate-bound phosphorus. However, limited information exists about phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products and how it is affected by microbial phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in brown rice, broken rice, full fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), and rice mill feed fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of microbial phytase on phosphorus digestibility in rice co-products.

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Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

Global production of rice is third in terms of total tonnage after corn and wheat. Rice is grown to produce polished white rice for human consumption. However, harvested rice, called paddy rice or rough rice, needs to be dehulled, which results in production of brown rice. The outer brown bran layer of brown rice, known as rice bran, also needs to be removed before polished white rice is produced. Approximately 20% of the paddy rice is hulls and the bran fraction is 8 to 10%, so only 70% of the paddy rice will become polished rice. Rice bran is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. During milling of the rice, some kernels may get broken and cannot be used for human consumption. These broken kernels are known as broken rice or brewers rice and may also be used in animal feeding. Broken rice is high in starch and contains little fat, fiber, or protein.

Both rice bran and broken rice may be fed to pigs, but these ingredients are poorly characterized in terms of nutritional value. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in broken rice, two sources of full fat rice bran (FFRB), and defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs.

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