Metabolizable energy

Effect of sample preparation method and drying method on the concentration of energy in urine and the concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to pigs

To obtain accurate values for metabolizable energy (ME) in diets and ingredients, an accurate estimation of gross energy (GE) in urine is required. Urine samples are often prepared following the freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag method and GE is determined by the ignition of the sample in a bomb calorimeter. However, the concentration of GE in urine can also be determined by dripping urine on a cellulose pellet, which can then be ignited in a bomb calorimeter. Alternatively, energy in urine can be calculated from the concentration of N in urine assuming that all energy in urine originates from N. The latter 2 methods may be less expensive and less time consuming than using the freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag method. Likewise, oven drying instead of freeze drying of samples may reduce time and cost of the drying procedure. However, to our knowledge, no data comparing values for GE in urine and ME in diets among different sample preparation and drying methods are available. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in GE of urine or ME values of diets among sample preparation methods (freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag, undried cellulose pellet, or N value method). The second hypothesis was that drying method (freeze drying or oven drying) of cotton-plastic bag urine samples from pigs do not influence analyzed the GE in urine or calculated ME in diets.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced by autoclaving soybean meal

Oliveira, M. S. F., M. K. Wiltafsky, S. A. Lee, K. W. Kwon, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced by autoclaving soybean meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 114621. Link to full text.

Excessive heating of 00-rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Excessive heating of 00-rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa219. Link to full text.

Digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal sourced from different countries and fed to pigs

Lopez, Diego A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal sourced from different countries and fed to pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268: 114600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114600.

Authors: 

Digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum based diets may be improved by addition of a xylanase-cellulase enzyme mixture

Exogenous carbohydrases can be used in diets for pigs to increase digestibility of dietary fiber and energy in cereal grains and cereal co-products. The three main fibers in cereal grains and cereal co-products are arabinoxylans, cellulose, and mixed-linked beta glucans. The fermentability is different among these three types of fiber. Energy digestibility is often improved if xylanase is added to wheat-based diets, whereas positive responses to xylanase in corn-based diets have been difficult to demonstrate, indicating that fermentation of dietary fiber differs among ingredients. However, there is less information about effects of carbohydrases on digestibility of fiber and energy in sorghum-based diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that xylanase and cellulase improve the digestibility of energy and total dietary fiber in diets based on corn or sorghum with addition of high fiber co-products.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of heat treatment on digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean meal fed to pigs

Lee, S. A., M. S. F. Oliveira, W. B. Kwon, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of heat treatment on digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean meal fed to pigs. Book of Abstracts. In: 1st International Feed Technology Congress, Cologne, Germany. p. 33. (Abstr.). Link to Abstract.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy in a heating double-low rapeseed meal fed to pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., J. K. Htoo, M. K. Wiltafsky, J. C. Gonzalez-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy in a heating double-low rapeseed meal fed to pigs. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019.

Publication Type: 

Nutrient composition and energy concentration in soybean meal from 5 different countries fed to pigs

Lagos, L. V., D. A. Lopez, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Nutrient composition and energy concentration in soybean meal from 5 different countries fed to pigs. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 159-160. (Abstr.). Link to full text

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets

Huang, C., H. H. Stein, and G. A. Casas. 2016. Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets. Pages 32-33 in Pig Progress, July 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Excessive heat treatment of double-low rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also concentrations of metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Double-low rapeseed meal (RSM) is currently used as a protein ingredient in animal diets. Heat treatment of RSM at varying processing conditions removes the residual hexane and efficiently reduces the glucosinolate content. However, variations in heat processing temperatures and duration of heat treatment may result in Maillard reactions, resulting in the formation of sugar-amino acid complexes. Maillard reaction products result in reduced standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), with Lys being the most sensitive AA. However, there is limited information about how heating affects the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time that heat is applied will affect the concentration of DE and ME and the SID of AA in double-low RSM fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, energy, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in conventional and extruded yellow dent corn, wheat, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

Extrusion of cereal grains may be used to improve nutrient digestibility in cereal grains because addition of heat and pressure in combination with addition of moisture during the extrusion may gelatinize the starch, which results in an increase in starch digestibility. It is also possible that AA and energy digestibility are increased by the extrusion, but data to verify this hypothesis have not been published. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of AA and starch and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ADF, NDF, and GE as well as the concentrations of DE and ME in corn, wheat, and sorghum are increased by extrusion.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high-fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong,  and H. H. Stein. 2018. The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high-fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:1860-1868. Link to abstract

High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end-back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D. and H. H. Stein. 2018. High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end-back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):174 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and fat and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, D. A., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and fat and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):173-174 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of amino acids, energy, fat, and fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Lee, S. A., C. D. Espinosa, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Digestibility of amino acids, energy, fat, and fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):172-173 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in mixed diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):159 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Young Scholar Presentation: Nutritional value of rice coproducts fed to pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2018. Young Scholar Presentation: Nutritional value of rice coproducts fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):143 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of various heat treatments on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Mathai, J. K., J. K. Htoo, M. Wiltafsky, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of various heat treatments on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):25-26 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Nutrient composition and digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A., D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Nutrient composition and digestibility of energy and nutrients in wheat middlings and red dog fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:215-224. Link to full text

Authors: 

The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Fiber in feed ingredients used in diets for pigs is mainly used for energy, which is synthesized by microbes in the hindgut of the pig and absorbed in the form of short chained fatty acids. To estimate the energy that a pig can obtain in a particular fibrous ingredient, a digestibility experiment is usually conducted and the digestible energy (DE) and the metabolizable energy (ME) in the ingredient is determined. However, it is not known if the obtained DE and ME values are accurate for all inclusion rates of the feed ingredient in diets.

There are two reasons that differing inclusion rates of high fiber ingredients in diets fed to pigs might result in variable DE and ME values. Because energy from dietary fiber is obtained via hindgut fermentation, there may be a saturation point in the fermentation capacity in the hindgut of growing pigs. In addition, increasing dietary fiber increases the passage rate of feed through the digestive tract and thus reduces time for fermentation. However, it is not known if these potential issues affect the DE and ME in fibrous ingredients fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of inclusion rate of four commonly used high fiber dietary ingredients on the concentration of DE and ME by growing pigs.

Publication Type: 

Pages