Stein

Metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced if excessive heat is applied during drying of corn

Corn is harvested at a high moisture level, and thus must be dried to less than 15% moisture to ensure safe storage. Improvements to reduce the energy consumption of the dryers have been implemented, especially by increasing the inlet air temperature. However, overheating may have a negative impact on the stability of nutrients, especially amino acids (AA), because Maillard reactions may occur if heat and moisture are applied to feed ingredients. Consequently, Maillard reactions result in a decrease in the concentration and digestibility of AA, and it is possible that energy digestibility is also reduced. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that both the temperature used in drying and the time that heat is applied will affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, and concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in corn fed to growing pigs.

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Fiber in Swine Nutrition

Lancheros, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, S. A. Lee, M. S. Oliveira, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Fiber in Swine Nutrition. L. I. Chiba, editor, Sustainable Swine Nutrition. 2nd rev. ed. doi:10.1002/9781119583998.ch14. Link to full text.

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Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients. L. I. Chiba, editor, Sustainable Swine Nutrition. 2nd rev. ed. doi:10.1002/9781119583998.ch19. Link to full text.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in a new variety of soybeans fed to growing pigs

More than half of P in soybeans are bound to phytate which causes a low digestibility of P when fed to pigs. However, new varieties that have different characteristics are sometimes developed and an example is the Photoseed variety of soybeans that captures more carbon and sunlight leading to a more nutrient rich ingredient and a reduced footprint from crop production. There is, however, no information about the nutritional value of the soybean meal produced from the Photoseed variety of soybeans. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P is not different in soybean meal produced from Photoseed soybeans compared with control soybean meal when fed to pigs.

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Mineral composition and phosphorus digestibility in feed phosphates fed to pigs and poultry

Lee, Su A, Diego A. Lopez, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Mineral composition and phosphorus digestibility in feed phosphates fed to pigs and poultry. Anim. Biosci. 36, 2:167-174. doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0322. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of phosphorus in high protein corn co-products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. Phytase is often employed during fermentation in the bioethanol process to improve the efficiency of fermentation. However, the use of phytase during fermentation may impact the nature of phosphorus (P) in any post fermentation products, which could subsequently alter the levels of phytate-bound and non-phytate P. As a consequence, this may influence digestibility and concentration of digestible P in any feed product derived from fermentation. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) produced from a fermentation with or without the use of phytase. It is also the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that inclusion of phytase during the fermentation process increases P digestibility in corn co-products.

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Microbial phytase impact on digestibility energy in growing pigs.

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2022 Microbial phytase impact on digestibility energy in growing pigs.  National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, Dec. 30, 2022.

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Preference for feed, but not growth performance, is reduced if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

McGhee, M. L.,  H. H. Stein. 2023. Preference for feed, but not growth performance, is reduced if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 296 (2023) 115566. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2022.115566. Link to full text.

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Determination of DE and ME in a new variety of soybeans fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the principal amino acid (AA) source in diets for pigs and it also supplies a considerable amount of metabolizable energy close to what is found in corn. However, new varieties that have different characteristics are sometimes developed and an example of such a new variety is the Photoseed variety of soybeans that captures more carbon and sunlight leading to a more nutrient rich ingredient and a reduced footprint from crop production. There is, however, no information about the nutritional value of the soybean meal produced from the Photoseed variety of soybeans. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are not different in soybean expellers produced from Photoseed soybeans compared with control soybeans when fed to pigs.

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Impacts of dietary copper on the swine gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome

Brinck, Julius Emil, Simon Bo Lassen, Asal Forouzandeh, Ting Pan, Yan-Zi Wang, Alessandra Monteiro, Laia Blavi, David Solà-Oriol, Hans H. Stein, Jian-Qiang Su, Kristian K. Brandt. 2022. Impacts of dietary copper on the swine gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome. Science of the Total Environment 857 (2023) 159609. Link to full text.

Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing spray-dried bovine plasma or hydrolyzed spray-dried bovine plasma

Espinosa, C. D., J. M. Campbell, H. H. Stein. 3033. Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing spray-dried bovine plasma or hydrolyzed spray-dried bovine plasma. Animal Feed Science and Technology 294 (2022) 115500. Link to full text.
 

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Digestibility of energy in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data have been published for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) have been reported as well. However, it is not known if the data obtained in wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in composition, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), and concentration of DE and ME between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Effect of increasing microbial phytase levels on digestibility of phosphorus in field peas fed to young pigs

The majority of P in most plant feed ingredients is bound to phytate. Pigs, however, do not synthesize adequate endogenous phytate to release the P bound to phytate, which results in low digestibility of P in field peas. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in field peas without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in field peas adding different levels of phytase. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of increasing levels of phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas fed to growing pigs.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids is not affected by reducing particle sizes or different origins of field peas fed to growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have been cultivated for centuries for human consumption, due to the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, during the last years, increasing demand for field peas for livestock feeding has developed a market in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. Therefore, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices, and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as the digestibility of nutrients. Besides that, differences in the particle size of field peas may change the digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in field peas is affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Amino acid digestibility in a new variety of soybeans fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the principal amino acid (AA) source in diets for pigs, and it is recognized that the AA profile of soybean meal is superior to that of other oilseed meals. However, new varieties that have different characteristics are sometimes developed and an example of such a new variety is the Photoseed variety of soybeans that captures more carbon and sunlight leading to a more nutrient rich ingredient and a reduced footprint from crop production. There is, however, no information about the nutritional value of the soybean meal produced from the Photoseed variety of soybeans. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and AA, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA are not different in soybean meal produced from Photoseed soybeans compared with control soybean meal when fed to pigs.

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Effects of a Probiotic Bacillus Strain on Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein, Starch, Energy and fat and Total Tract Digestibility of Energy and Dietary Fiber in Diets fed to Weanling Pigs

Oliveira, Maryane. S. F., Guillermo Jimenez, Hans H Stein. 2022. Effects of a Probiotic Bacillus Strain on Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein, Starch, Energy and fat and Total Tract Digestibility of Energy and Dietary Fiber in Diets fed to Weanling Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 3) 118–119. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac247.228.

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Effects of Different Watering Options on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and net Energy in Diets fed to Growing Pigs

Lee, Su A, Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Different Watering Options on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and net Energy in Diets fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100, (Suppl. 3) 118, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac247.227. Link to full text.

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Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) and 1-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations of energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation

Lee, Su A , Leidy J. Torres-Mendoza, and Hans H. Stein1. 2022. Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) and 1-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations of energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–8. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac299.

Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels

Nelson, Megan E., Su A Lee, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Janet Remus, and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–7. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac280. Link to full text.

Digestibility of amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) have been published for wheat middlings from the U.S. However, it is not known if the data obtained from wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in composition and SID of CP and AA between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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