Stein

Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets with different inclusion levels of a cheese co-product

Whey, which is a co-product from dairy processing plants that extract fat and protein from milk to make cheese, has been used in diets fed to weanling pigs as a source of lactose. Whey powder does not contain much protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, cheese co-products, which contain 40 to 50% crude protein may be used in the feeding of pigs, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of cheese co-products fed to pigs. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that a cheese co-product may replace traditional protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without affecting growth performance.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets fed to pigs. Newly developed corn proteins are high protein feed ingredients with approximately 40 to 50% crude protein (CP), and corn protein may be a great source of digestible amino acids (AA) in diets fed to weanling pigs. There are, however, limited data on the digestibility of AA in different sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 3 different sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda-Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Hans H. Stein, and D. Allen Davis. 2021. Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2021;27:1103–1113. doi: 10.1111/anu.13251. Link to full text.

Corn protein has greater concentrations of digestible amino acids and energy than low-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to pigs but does not affect the growth performance of weanling pigs

Acosta, Jessica P., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Neil W. Jaworski, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Corn protein has greater concentrations of digestible amino acids and energy than low-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to pigs but does not affect the growth performance of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 7, 1–12. doi:10.1093/jas/skab175.

Effect of phytase on weaning piglet performance when fed diets supplemented with pharmacological levels of Zn

Pharmacological levels of Zn (i.e., 2,000 to 3,000 mg/kg) is often included in diets for weanling pigs to prevent post-weaning diarrhea. However, pharmacological levels of Zn may reduce microbial phytase efficacy by chelating the phytate molecule, which subsequently prevents access for phytase.  However, it is possible that this effect can be reduced by adding more phytase to diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of phytase increases pig growth performance and mineral digestibility in diets with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn.

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Effect of dietary crude protein level on growth performance, blood characteristics, and indicators of intestinal health in weanling pigs

Limbach, Joseph R., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Estefania Perez-Calvo, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Effect of dietary crude protein level on growth performance, blood characteristics, and indicators of intestinal health in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–14. doi:10.1093/jas/skab166. Link to full text.

Inclusion of dicopper oxide instead of copper sulfate in diets for growing–finishing pigs results in greater final body weight and bone mineralization, but reduced accumulation of copper in the liver

Blavi, Laia, David Solà, Alessandra Monteiro, J. Francisco Pérez, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Inclusion of dicopper oxide instead of copper sulfate in diets for growing–finishing pigs results in greater final body weight and bone mineralization, but reduced accumulation of copper in the liver. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skab127.

Relative bioavailability by nursery pigs of Zn in a new source of Zn-glycinate

Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is needed for growth, bone development, and immune competence. Inorganic Zn sources such as Zn oxide and Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) are most commonly used in swine diets. However, because of low bioavailability of Zn the inorganic Zn sources chelated Zn sources may be used instead because these sources have greater bioavailability of Zn. Chelated zinc may also reduce reactiveness with other components of the diet. A new chelated Zn source, zinc bis-glycinate, in which Zn is bound to two glycine molecules, was recently developed, but there is limited information about effects of this new chelated Zn source on digestibility and Zn retention in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the relative bioavailability by weanling pigs of Zn in Zn bis-glycinate is greater than in Zn mono-glycinate and in ZnSO4.

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Analyzed values for P and phytate in feed ingredients

Phytic acid is the main storage of P in plants, and most P in plant feed ingredients is bound in the phytate complex. Because pigs do not secrete phytase, an enzyme to hydrolyze inositol bonds in phytate, the utilization of P by pigs is very low. Addition of supplemental phytase to diets thus results in release of P and increases P utilization by pigs. However, all enzymes have a special recognition mechanism called specificity that works only with molecules that fit to active sites of the enzyme. Therefore, it is important to know how much of P is phytate-bound and how much of the P in a given diet is not phytate-bound.

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Effects of reducing the concentration of Ca and P and increasing microbial phytase on gastric pH, fecal score, plasma inositol, growth performance, and bone ash of weanling pigs

The limited capacity for weanling pigs to secret HCl in the stomach may be exacerbated by inclusion of ingredients with high acid binding capacity such as limestone and monocalcium phosphate. As a consequence, reducing the amount of these 2 ingredients in diets for weanling pigs may contribute to a stable low pH for proper pepsin activity and increased action of microbial phytase. Inclusion of high doses of phytase that results in increased phytate degradation and increased release of Ca, P, and inositol may also be beneficial to newly weaned pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that lowering dietary Ca and P reduces gastric pH and diarrhea of weanling pigs, but microbial phytase may overcome negative effects of low Ca and P on growth performance and bone ash.

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Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones

Lee, Su A, L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skab149.

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Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in beef or pork burgers are greater than in plant-based burgers

In the U.S. and most other developed countries, animal-based proteins provide a significant portion of the human diet. However, predictions for animal protein consumption indicates that consumption in Europe and North America will begin to decline by 2035 because plant-based proteins have become accepted as having an appearance, texture, and taste that is close to that of animal products. Examples of plant based proteins that are already on the market are plant-based burgers such as the Impossible Burger and the Beyond Burger, which are produced primarily from soy and pea protein, respectively. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is recommended by FAO as the best method to determine protein quality in human foods. This method allows for calculation of the protein value of both individual ingredients and combined meals consisting of several proteins. Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated that values for DIAAS obtained in milk and breakfast cereals are additive in mixed meals, and the principle of additivity is believed to be applicable to all types of combined meals, but additional research to demonstrate this is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine DIAAS values for animal and plant-based burgers and test the hypothesis that DIAAS calculated for a burger and a burger bun are additive in a combined meal.

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Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total calcium. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 5, 1–7. doi:10.1093/jas/skab138.

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Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda-Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Hans H. Stein, D. Allen Davis. 2021. Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2021;00:1–11. DOI: 10.1111/anu.13251. Link to full text.

Effect of the Pelleting Process on Diet Formulations with Varying Levels of Crystalline Amino Acids and Reducing Sugars on Digestibility in Growing Pigs

Dunmire, K. M., D. A. Lopez, C. J. Fiehler, Y. Zhang, C. K. Jones, Y. Li, J. C. Woodworth, R. D. Goodband, M. D. Tokach, C. R. Stark, H. H. Stein, and C. B. Paulk. 2021. Effect of the Pelleting Process on Diet Formulations with Varying Levels of Crystalline Amino Acids and Reducing Sugars on Digestibility in Growing Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 66–67. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.110.

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Conditioning and Expansion Increases Nutritional Value of Soybean Expellers

Espinosa, C. D., M. S. F. Oliveira, J. R. Limbach, N. Fanelli, M. Wiltafsky-Martin, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Conditioning and Expansion Increases Nutritional Value of Soybean Expellers. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 83–84. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.135. Link to Abstract.

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Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs

Bailey, H. M., H. H. Stein, and J. Campbell. 2021. Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 80–81. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.132. Link to Abstract.

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Effects of Dietary Valine, Isoleucine, and Tryptophan Supplementations to Diets Containing Excess Leucine from Corn Protein on Growth Performance of Growing Pigs

Kwon, W. B., J. A. Soto, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Effects of Dietary Valine, Isoleucine, and Tryptophan Supplementations to Diets Containing Excess Leucine from Corn Protein on Growth Performance of Growing Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 61–62. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.103. Link to Abstract.

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Optimal tryptophan:lysine Ratio for 25–40 Kg Growing Pigs Fed Diets Containing 35 % Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

Oliveira, M. S. F., J. K. Htoo, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Optimal tryptophan:lysine Ratio for 25–40 Kg Growing Pigs Fed Diets Containing 35 % Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 57–58. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.097. (Abstr.). Link to Abstract.

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Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced

McGhee, M. L., and H. H. Stein. 2021. Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 51–52. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.087. Link to Abstract.

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