Stein

Effects of microbial phytase on mucin synthesis, gastric protein hydrolysis, and degradation of phytate along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

Mesina Von G. R., L. Vanessa Lagos, Rommel C. Sulabo, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of microbial phytase on mucin synthesis, gastric protein hydrolysis, and degradation of phytate along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:756–767. Link to full text.

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Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi Laia, Jens N. Jørgensen, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:727–734. Link to full text.

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Pork products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing does not always increase amino acid scores

Pork is the most widely consumed animal meat in the world accounting for approximately 40% of the total global meat intake. Pork almost always undergoes some degree of processing prior to consumption. Consequently, thermal processing induces modification to the 3-dimentional structure of proteins, which may lead to increased digestibility of amino acids (AA).

Protein quality is evaluated in human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) methodology, which can be described as the digestibility of individual dietary indispensable AA (IAA) compared with the same IAA in 1 of the 3 reference protein patterns established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Values for DIAAS of bovine meat cooked by various techniques have been determined, yet to our knowledge, there are no reported DIAAS values for pork products and the IAA digestibility of pork after processing has not been reported.

Therefore, the objective for the present work was to determine DIAAS values for pork products, and to test the hypothesis that processing may increase protein quality.

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Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase

Abelilla Jerubella J.,  and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase. J. Anim. Sci. 97:338–352. Link to full text.

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Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial

Payling Laura, Tofuko A. Woyengo, Mogens Nielsen, Hans H. Stein, Maria C. Walsh, Luis Romero, and Susan Arent, 2019. Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019. 247:183-193. Link to full text.

Excessive heat treatment of double-low rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also concentrations of metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Double-low rapeseed meal (RSM) is currently used as a protein ingredient in animal diets. Heat treatment of RSM at varying processing conditions removes the residual hexane and efficiently reduces the glucosinolate content. However, variations in heat processing temperatures and duration of heat treatment may result in Maillard reactions, resulting in the formation of sugar-amino acid complexes. Maillard reaction products result in reduced standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), with Lys being the most sensitive AA. However, there is limited information about how heating affects the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time that heat is applied will affect the concentration of DE and ME and the SID of AA in double-low RSM fed to growing pigs.

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Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs

Arredondo Mónica A., Gloria A. Casas, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 27 - 36. Link to full text.

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Arabinoxylan is the main polysaccharide in fiber from rice coproducts, and increased concentration of fiber decreases in vitro digestibility of dry matter

Casas Gloria A., Helle N. Lærke, Knud E. Bach Knudsen, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Arabinoxylan is the main polysaccharide in fiber from rice coproducts, and increased concentration of fiber decreases in vitro digestibility of dry matter. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 247: 255 - 261. Link to full text.

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Effects of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance and bone ash concentration in 50- to 85-kg growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus

Lagos L. V., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance and bone ash concentration in 50- to 85-kg growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 247: 262 - 272. Link to full text.

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Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs

Navarro D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 1 - 9. Link to full text.

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Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Yue She, J. Chris Sparks, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2804–2816.

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Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs

McGhee Molly L. and Hans. H. Stein. 2018. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:3319–3329.  Link to full text.

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Crystalline amino acids in diets used to determine the standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients fed to pigs do not influence calculated values for amino acid digestibility

Protein and amino acids quality in feed ingredient is most correctly evaluated by determining the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids. Experiments to determine the SID of CP and amino acids in feed ingredients often utilize semi-synthetic diets that contain the test ingredient as the sole source of CP and amino acids. Therefore, the CP and amino acid supply from experimental diets do not always meet the requirement for standardized ileal digestible amino acids by pigs and, therefore, pig growth is often limited in these experiments.

Crystalline amino acids are believed to be rapidly absorbed and 100% digestible. Addition of crystalline amino acids to diets during the adaptation or collection phase is, therefore, believed not to influence values for SID of amino acids in the test feed ingredient, but this has not been experimentally verified. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of crystalline amino acids to diets during the adaptation or collection periods of digestibility studies will not influence calculated values for SID of CP and amino acids in corn and soybean meal. 

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Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro D.M.D.L., J.K. Mathai, N.W. Jaworski, H.H. Stein. 2018. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 98: 860–867. Link to full text

 

Canola meal produced from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds may substitute soybean meal in diets for gestating and lactating sows without compromising sow or litter productivity

Yanhong Liu, Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Hans H Stein, 2018. Canola meal produced from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds may substitute soybean meal in diets for gestating and lactating sows without compromising sow or litter productivity. Journal of Animal Science: 96:12, 5179–5187. Link full text.

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Influence of the concentration of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance, bone ash, and abundance of genes involved in intestinal absorption of calcium in pigs from 11 to 25 kg fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus

Requirements for P for growing pigs are expressed as the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, whereas requirements for Ca are usually expressed as requirements for total Ca. It is, however, recognized that diets for pigs are most accurately formulated based on a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio, and recent work has generated values for STTD of Ca in most Ca containing feed ingredients, which makes it possible to formulate diets based on STTD Ca.

Recent data from the University of Illinois have indicated that if STTD P is at the requirement, a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P that is less than 1.35:1, 1.25:1, and 1.10:1 maximizes growth performance of pigs from 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg, respectively. However, the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize bone ash is greater than the ratio needed to maximize growth performance. An attempt to estimate the requirement for STTD Ca by pigs from 11 to 25 kg was also made, but due to a reduction in ADG and G:F as dietary Ca increased, an optimal STTD Ca:STTD P ratio could not be estimated.

Calcium may be absorbed by transcellular or paracellular transport. Transcellular transport is the primary route if dietary Ca is low, but if dietary Ca is adequate or high, Ca is mainly absorbed using the paracellular route via the tight junctions. However, there are limited data demonstrating effects of dietary Ca concentration on abundance of genes related to transcellular and paracellular transport of Ca in the small intestine of pigs.

Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to test the hypotheses that a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio less than 1.40:1 maximizes growth performance of pigs from 11 to 25 kg and that increasing dietary Ca downregulates abundance of genes related to transcellular absorption of Ca and tight junction proteins in the small intestine.

 

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Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals

Yanhong Liu, Rajesh Jha, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals. J. Anim. Sci. 2018.96:4685–4692. Link to full text.

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Effect of dietary calcium on growth performance of growing pigs

S. A. Lee, Vanessa Lagos, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effect of dietary calcium on growth performance of growing pigs. Pages 173 - 184. XXXIV Specialization Course FEDNA, Madrid, Nov. 22 - 23, 2018. Link to full text (.pdf)

 

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Nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum, red sorghum, white sorghum, and yellow dent corn fed to growing pigs

Sorghum is used as an alternative to corn due to its lower cost and wide availability. However, conventional sorghum contains high concentration of tannin and phytate, which act as antinutritional factors. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. High-lysine sorghum is a new variety of sorghum which may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing sorghum and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in sorghum varieties. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high-lysine sorghum is not different from that of corn and other sources of sorghum.

 

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Effects of dietary leucine concentration on branched-chain amino acid metabolism in growing pigs

Leucine, Val, and Ile are categorized as the branched-chain AA (BCAA) because of the structural similarity of their side chains. All 3 BCAA share the enzymes that are involved in the first 2 steps of their catabolic pathway. The first step is a transamination step catalyzed by BCAA transaminase (BCAT) and producing branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKA). The second step is an irreversible degradation step catalyzed by branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). In the second step, Leu has been considered a key regulator as its BCKA metabolite (α-keto isocaproate) stimulates activation of the BCKDH complex in the liver. When excess Leu in diets is offered to pigs, degradation of all 3 BCAA may increase because of increased activity of BCAT and BCKDH. Leucine and Trp are both categorized as large neutral AA, and they share a common uptake pathway across the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it is possible that excessive Leu may result in reduced Trp uptake into the brain due to competition for transporters, resulting in reduced serotonin synthesis.

 

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