Stein

Determination of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the growing pig for calculation of digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS)

Hodgkinson, Suzanne M., Hans H. Stein, Sonja de Vries, Wouter H. Hendriks, and Paul J. Moughan. 2020. Determination of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the growing pig for calculation of digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). The Journal of Nutrition. First published online 0, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa210.

Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–8.

doi:10.1093/jas/skaa215. Link to full text.

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Excessive heating of 00-rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Oliveira,Maryane S. F., Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Excessive heating of 00-rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa219. Link to full text.

The apparent ileal digestibility and the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates and energy in hybrid rye are different from some other cereal grains when fed to growing pigs

McGhee, Molly L., and Hans. H. Stein. 2020. The apparent ileal digestibility and the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates and energy in hybrid rye are different from some other cereal grains when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–10. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa218. Link to full time.

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Reduce crude protein to improve fecal consistency, intestine morphology

Limbach, Joseph R., Charmaine D. Espinosa, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Reduce crude protein to improve fecal consistency, intestine morphology. National Hog Farmer, Online edition, July 30, 2020. Link to full text.

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Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, Minoy, Jessica P. Acosta, Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa200.

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Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and energy by growing pigs, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in yellow dent corn, hard red winter wheat, and sorghum may be influenced by extrusion

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A. Lee, Cassandra K. Jones, John K. Htoo, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and energy by growing pigs, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in yellow dent corn, hard red winter wheat, and sorghum may be influenced by extrusion. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268 (2020) 114602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114602.

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Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review

Lancheros, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268 (2020) 114603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114603.

Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on the calcium and phosphorus balance of growing pigs

Several experiments were conducted to estimate Ca digestibility in different feed ingredients in the presence or absence of microbial phytase to allow formulation of diets for pigs to be based on standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca instead of total Ca. Thus, 4 experiments aimed at determining Ca requirements expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P in pigs from 11 to 130 kg. A follow-up study was later conducted to validate those data and to evaluate the effect of using ratios that maximize growth performance on bone development because maximum bone ash requires more Ca than maximum growth performance. However, data indicate that STTD Ca to STTD P ratios to maximize Ca retention are greater than to maximize bone ash synthesis. The use of STTD Ca to STTD P ratios in diet formulation may result in a reduction in excess dietary Ca, which is beneficial because excess dietary Ca is detrimental to P digestibility and growth performance of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that formulating diets for growing pigs based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P instead of total Ca and STTD P does not decrease Ca retention, but increases P utilization.

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Pigs prefer diets containing corn to diets containing hybrid rye when given the choice, but growth performance is not reduced when hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

In many parts of the world, including the United States, corn is the primary energy source used in diets for pigs, but there are no published data comparing the growth performance of growing pigs fed diets in which hybrid rye replaces corn. Unfamiliarity with hybrid rye also makes some producers in the United States reluctant to try feeding hybrid rye to pigs, as there is a long-standing belief that rye is less palatable than other feed ingredients. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that there is no difference in feed preference for diets containing either hybrid rye or corn as the exclusive cereal grain source, and that hybrid rye may replace a portion of corn in diets for growing pigs without adversely affecting growth. 

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Raw and roasted pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) are ‘good’ sources of protein based on their digestible indispensable amino acid score as determined in pigs

Bailey, Hannah M., and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Raw and roasted pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) are ‘good’ sources of protein based on their digestible indispensable amino acid score as determined in pigs. J Sci Food Agric 2020; 100: 3878–3885. Link to full text.

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Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, Carly M., Valeria Artuso-Ponte, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2020.4:1-7. doi: 10.1093/tas/txaa054. Link to full text. 

Most meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing may increase or reduce protein quality

Bailey, Hannah M., John K. Mathai, Eric P. Berg, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Most meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing may increase or reduce protein quality. British Journal of Nutrition (2020), 124, 14–22. doi:10.1017/S0007114520000641. Link to full text.

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Impact of increasing the levels of insoluble fiber and on the method of diet formulation measures of energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

Acosta, Jesus A., Hans H. Stein, and John F. Patience. 2020. Impact of increasing the levels of insoluble fiber and on the method of diet formulation measures of energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa130. Link to full text.

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Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum and the effects on nursery pig growth performance

Thomas, Lori L., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Robert D. Goodband, Hans H. Stein, Mike D. Tokach, Steve S. Dritz, Jason C. Woodworth, and Joel M. DeRouchey. 2020. Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum and the effects on nursery pig growth performance. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–16.  doi:10.1093/jas/skaa120.

Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on growth performance, bone ash, plasma Ca and P, and carcass characteristics of pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Calcium requirements by pigs are expressed as total Ca because of a lack of data for the digestibility of Ca in feed ingredients, but it is believed that a ratio between standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P is a more appropriate way to express requirements for Ca by pigs. Values for Ca digestibility in different Ca-containing feed ingredients were recently generated using diets without or with microbial phytase, which allowed for the formulation of diets based on STTD Ca values. A number of experiments were also conducted to determine STTD Ca to STTD P requirements to optimize growth performance and bone mineralization of pigs from 11 to 25 kg, 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg. However, these experiments were performed independently and in experiments lasting only 3 to 5 weeks. Therefore, a follow-up experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the requirement for Ca expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P obtained in short-term experiments may be applied to pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase from 11 to 130 kg.

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Effect of replacing corn with bakery meal in diets for weanling pigs

Bakery meal consist of unsalable bread, breakfast cereals, cookies, pasta, and other foods that are no longer intended for human consumption. Bakery meal converts losses from the food industry into ingredients for the animal feed industry, thereby preventing food losses in the food chain. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most bakery products, and this results in bakery meal containing high concentration of starch. Therefore, bakery meal is a potential sustainable feed ingredient that can be used in animal diets without competing with the food industry. However, research demonstrating the effect of bakery meal on growth performance for weanling pigs is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that replacing corn with bakery meal will not influence growth performance of pigs.

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Hybrid rye instead of corn does not impede pig growth

McGhee, M. L., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Hybrid rye instead of corn does not impede pig growth. National Hog Farmer, Online edition, April 30, 2020. Link to full text. 

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Is the Phosphorus in Rye More Digestible?

Archs Toledo, J. L., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Is the phosphorus in rye more digestible? Pork Magazine, April 8, 2020. Link to full text.

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