Research Reports

Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility, and retention of calcium in gestating sows changes during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium by gestating sows

Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca has been determined for most Ca containing ingredients fed to growing pigs, but the basal endogenous loss of Ca is greater and the STTD of Ca in sows in mid-gestation are less than in growing pigs. As a consequence, if diets for gestating sows are formulated using STTD values determined in growing pigs, the provisions of digestible Ca may be less than anticipated.

The efficacy of phytase to release Ca and P is believed to be influenced by the physiological state of pigs with phytase fed to sows in mid-gestation releasing less Ca and P compared with growing pigs or sows in late-gestation. However, it is not known if values for STTD of Ca or retention of Ca and P that are measured in one period of gestation are representative of the entire gestation period.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the STTD of Ca from calcium carbonate and the response to microbial phytase on STTD of Ca and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in corn-based diets fed to gestating sows are constant throughout the gestating period for sows. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that retention of Ca and P does not change during gestation.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of two direct fed microbials on ileal digestibility of amino acids and total tract digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Direct fed microbials (DFM) are defined as live microorganisms that offer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Bacillus-based DFM are aerobic, spore-forming bacteria that may enhance the host animal’s immune response and improve growth performance in weanling pigs. Bacillus spp. also produce extracellular enzymes that may enhance digestibility and absorption of nutrients.

An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that two DFM containing Bacillus strains (provided by Chr. Hansen A/S, Horsholm, Denmark) improve the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA, CP, and GE, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and GE, and hindgut digestibility of CP and GE when fed to growing pigs.

 

Publication Type: 

Comparative digestibility and retention rate of calcium and phosphorus in low- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Digestibility of Ca and P is most correctly determined as standardized total tract digestibility (STTD). Data for the STTD of P in most feed ingredients have been published, and the STTD of Ca has also been determined in many feed ingredients. However, in practical diet formulation, values for STTD of Ca and P obtained in growing pigs are also applied to sows although there is a lack of comparative data between growing pigs and sows.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that no differences exist between gestating sows and growing pigs for basal endogenous losses, STTD, and retention of Ca and P.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, energy, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in conventional and extruded yellow dent corn, wheat, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

Extrusion of cereal grains may be used to improve nutrient digestibility in cereal grains because addition of heat and pressure in combination with addition of moisture during the extrusion may gelatinize the starch, which results in an increase in starch digestibility. It is also possible that AA and energy digestibility are increased by the extrusion, but data to verify this hypothesis have not been published. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of AA and starch and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ADF, NDF, and GE as well as the concentrations of DE and ME in corn, wheat, and sorghum are increased by extrusion.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

Until recently, rye has been less suitable for livestock feed than other cereal grains due to the risk of ergot contamination. However, recently developed hybrids are less susceptible to ergot contamination. There is limited information about the nutritional value of hybrid rye when fed to pigs.

In cereal grains, most of the phosphorus is bound to phytic acid, and is not available to pigs unless phytase is present. This is usually achieved by adding supplemental phytase, derived from microbes, to the diets. However, rye contains more intrinsic phytase than other cereal grains, so the phosphorus in rye may be more digestible. The addition of microbial phytase might also have less of an effect on phosphorus digestibility in rye than in other grains because of the high concentrations of intrinsic phytase in rye, but limited information about digestibility of phosphorus in rye has been reported.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Sangrovit G is a phytogenic feed additive derived from Macleaya cordata composed of isoquinoline alkaloids (IQ), primarily sanguinarine, that are believed to benefit animal performance. Sanguinarine has anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antimicrobial effects. As a result, inclusion of IQ in diets for pigs may reduce inflammation in the intestine and thereby increase absorption of essential nutrients.

However, there are no data published for the effects of IQ on digestibility of crude protein, amino acids, starch, and lipids in pigs. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract and starch in corn-soybean meal diets fed to young growing pigs increases as IQ is added to the diet.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of GraINzyme and AxtraPhy phytases in restoring performance and bone ash in pigs fed low-phosphorus and calcium diets

Last month's newsletter included a research report on research into a novel E. coli phytase expressed in corn, called GraINzyme. Results of that research indicated that adding GraINzyme phytase to diets fed to young growing pigs increased growth performance, digestibility of calcium and phosphorus, and bone mineralization. The comparative effects of GraINzyme and a commercial phytase was not tested in the previous study. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare effects of addition of GraINzyme phytase to the commercial phytase AxtraPhy in diets fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Ileal digestibility of amino acids and starch in hybrid rye compared with other cereal grains fed to pigs

Hybrid rye is grown in Europe, Canada, and the United States, and compared with conventional rye, it has increased yields and reduced risk of ergot contamination, making it an interesting ingredient in the feeding of pigs. However, there is limited information about the nutritional value of hybrid rye when fed to pigs. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids, as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of starch in hybrid rye compared with barley, wheat, and corn.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect on growth performance and bone mineralization of GraINzyme phytase in diets fed to growing pigs

Most of the phosphorus in corn and other plant-based feed ingredients fed to pigs is bound to phytate. Pigs do not secrete phytase in adequate quantities to liberate significant amounts of phytate-bound phosphorus, meaning that most of the phosphorus in these ingredients is not biologically available. Calcium digestibility is also negatively affected by the presence of phytate in feed ingredients. One way for producers to ensure that pigs' requirements are met is to add supplementary phosphorus to diets. However, this adds to the cost of diets. The excretion of phytate-bound phosphorus also may contribute to algae overgrowth in waterways.

Another approach is to add supplemental phytase to the diets, to allow pigs to better utilize the phosphorus present in the ingredients. Phytases can be obtained from plants, animals, or microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and fungi).

GraINzyme is a source of phytase produced by genetically modified corn plants with genes derived from E. coli. In this experiment, the effect on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium and phosphorus, and bone mineralization of adding GraINzyme to weanling pig diets was tested.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

The contribution of digestible and metabolizable energy from high fiber dietary ingredients is not affected by inclusion rate in mixed diets fed to growing pigs

Fiber in feed ingredients used in diets for pigs is mainly used for energy, which is synthesized by microbes in the hindgut of the pig and absorbed in the form of short chained fatty acids. To estimate the energy that a pig can obtain in a particular fibrous ingredient, a digestibility experiment is usually conducted and the digestible energy (DE) and the metabolizable energy (ME) in the ingredient is determined. However, it is not known if the obtained DE and ME values are accurate for all inclusion rates of the feed ingredient in diets.

There are two reasons that differing inclusion rates of high fiber ingredients in diets fed to pigs might result in variable DE and ME values. Because energy from dietary fiber is obtained via hindgut fermentation, there may be a saturation point in the fermentation capacity in the hindgut of growing pigs. In addition, increasing dietary fiber increases the passage rate of feed through the digestive tract and thus reduces time for fermentation. However, it is not known if these potential issues affect the DE and ME in fibrous ingredients fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of inclusion rate of four commonly used high fiber dietary ingredients on the concentration of DE and ME by growing pigs.

Publication Type: 

Effects of Calmin on energy, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balance and on growth performance of weanling pigs

Calmin is a calcium supplement produced from sea minerals. It also contains 6% magnesium, which may increase calcium absorption. Calmin has been used as a rumen buffer in dairy cows, but limited data are available for pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the effect of feeding diets containing Calmin on calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balance, energy balance, and growth performance of weanling pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of different levels of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs

Rice bran is the main coproduct of the production of white rice for human consumption, and is used in livestock diets around the world. Rice bran can be full fat (FFRB), with 14 to 25% fat, or defatted (DFRB), containing 3 to 5% fat.

The type of fat in the diet affects the quality of fat in the pig, because pigs deposit fatty acids in approximately the same proportions as they exist in the diet. A high consumption of unsaturated fat can inhibit the pig's own synthesis of fat, which tends to be more saturated. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids  in fat can be expressed using the iodine value (IV), where high IVs correspond to more unsaturated fat. Increased IV in pig fat can lead to softer bellies, which are less valuable due to reduced shelf life, increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, and reduced belly sliceability.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of Dakota Gold distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and conventional DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets as meal or as pellets

Dakota Gold is a low-oil source of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced using a cold-fermentation process. Recent research conducted by the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory has demonstrated that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids is greater in Dakota Gold than in conventional DDGS, but Dakota Gold contains less metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional DDGS.

An experiment was conducted to determine effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feeding Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS to pigs from weaning to market. Because limited information exists about effects of pelleting on growth performance of pigs fed diets that contain DDGS, this research also tested the effects of feeding diets containing either Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS in a meal form or in a pelleted form.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in Dakota Gold distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to pigs is greater than in conventional DDGS

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of ethanol production. In recent years, companies that produce DDGS have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

Research has shown that adding fat to diets fed to pigs increases the digestibility of amino acids in the diets. However, there is limited information about how reduced oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of protein when fed to pigs. An experiment was conducted to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in conventional DDGS and in the low-oil DDGS product Dakota Gold, which is produced using a process that does not involve heating.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of energy and nutrients, and concentrations of DE and ME, in Dakota Gold DDGS fed to pigs

In recent years, companies that produce distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have begun to remove some of the corn oil for use in biodiesel production. Conventional DDGS contains 10-12% fat, compared with 6-9% in low-oil DDGS.

There is limited information about how oil concentration in DDGS influences the digestibility of energy, fiber, and fat when fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), as well as the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in two sources of DDGS. One source was a conventional DDGS, and the other was Dakota Gold, a low-oil DDGS.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of NDF and concentration of DE and ME in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

In recent years, ethanol plants have begun extracting more oil from the solubles left over after fermentation. The resulting low oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) contain less digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than traditional DDGS.

The fat content of the diet affects the digestibility of energy and nutrients. Because the production of low oil DDGS is a relatively new development, it has not been established that digestibility values are the same across suppliers. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and the concentration of DE and ME among DDGS samples from different suppliers.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in low-oil DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are fed to pigs as a source of energy and amino acids. In recent years, ethanol plants have begun recovering corn oil from DDGS to sell for biodiesel and other uses. Conventional corn DDGS contains 10-12 fat, compared with 5-9% fat in low oil DDGS. Previous research in our lab showed that amino acid digestibility was reduced in low oil DDGS compared with conventional DDGS, but that research used DDGS from only one supplier. An experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in low oil DDGS sourced from multiple different suppliers.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of energy, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility in conventional and high protein DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product from the dry-grind ethanol production. It is increasingly in demand for use in livestock feeding, including diets fed to pigs. Conventional DDGS (DDGS-CV) contains approximately 27% crude protein. A high protein DDGS (DDGS-HP) product, containing 38 to 40% crude protein, has recently been developed by Lincolnway Energy by using front end separation that allows for fractionation of the corn kernel before it is fermented. The nutritional value for pigs of the resulting  DDGS-HP has, however, not yet been fully described.

Therefore, two experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to determine the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in DDGS-HP and DDGS-CV fed to growing pigs. In the second experiment, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in DDGS-CV and DDGS-HP were compared.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Productivity of sows fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds during gestation and lactation

Canola meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source used in animal diets. However, the digestibility of amino acids and digestible energy is lower in canola meal than in soybean meal because of the high concentration of fiber in canola meal. The high fiber content and the presence of glucosinolates limit inclusion of canola meal in diets fed to pigs.

Research on using canola meal in pig diets at different stages has indicated that it can be used in gestation diets without limitation and 15 to 20% may be included in lactation diets. However, at least one study indicated that including canola meal in gestating and lactation diets reduced the number of pigs born alive and the number of pigs weaned, and also reduced lactation feed intake and litter weaning weight.

New canola varieties have been developed that yield meal with more protein and less fiber compared with conventional canola meal (CM-CV). The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of feeding diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or CM-CV to sows during gestation and lactation, and to determine the optimum inclusion rates of CM-HP and CM-CV in gestation and lactation diets.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients and effects on in vitro ileal and total tract digestibility of dry matter

The chemical composition and structure of dietary fiber, as well as physicochemical characteristics such as bulk density, swelling, water binding capacity, and viscosity, may influence the digestion of energy and nutrients in feed ingredients. Having a complete account of the components of a feed ingredient, particularly the type and concentration of fiber, is necessary in order to accurately the energy value of an ingredient using prediction equations.

An experiment was conducted to obtain a detailed description of the composition of ten feed ingredients, and to compare the analyzed gross energy (GE) with the GE predicted by adding together the measured energy-containing components. A secondary objective was to measure the in vitro apparent total tract digestibility (IVATTD) and in vitro apparent ileal digestibility (IVAID) of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in the feed ingredients, and to determine the correlations between the physicochemical characteristics of the ingredients and the in vitro digestibility.

Publication Type: 

Pages