Research Reports

Values for digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) determined in pigs for breakfast cereals and milk are additive in combined breakfast cereal-milk meals

Breakfast cereals are usually consumed with milk as a breakfast meal. To meet requirements for amino acids (AA), higher quality proteins are needed to complement the protein in cereals to provide a meal that is adequate in all indispensable AA. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) method used to determine protein quality allows for calculation of the protein value of individual ingredients and mixed meals consisting of several proteins. Values for DIAAS are based on values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA that are corrected for the basal endogenous loss of each individual AA, resulting in values defined as standardized ileal digestibility (SID). Values for SID of AA are additive in mixed meals because these values are independent of basal endogenous losses. Consequently, it is expected that DIAAS obtained for individual food ingredients are additive in a mixed meal, but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that AA in milk complement AA in breakfast cereals to provide a balanced meal and that DIAAS in individual foods are additive in a combined meal.  

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Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on the calcium and phosphorus balance of growing pigs

Several experiments were conducted to estimate Ca digestibility in different feed ingredients in the presence or absence of microbial phytase to allow formulation of diets for pigs to be based on standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca instead of total Ca. Thus, 4 experiments aimed at determining Ca requirements expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P in pigs from 11 to 130 kg. A follow-up study was later conducted to validate those data and to evaluate the effect of using ratios that maximize growth performance on bone development because maximum bone ash requires more Ca than maximum growth performance. However, data indicate that STTD Ca to STTD P ratios to maximize Ca retention are greater than to maximize bone ash synthesis. The use of STTD Ca to STTD P ratios in diet formulation may result in a reduction in excess dietary Ca, which is beneficial because excess dietary Ca is detrimental to P digestibility and growth performance of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that formulating diets for growing pigs based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P instead of total Ca and STTD P does not decrease Ca retention, but increases P utilization.

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Pigs prefer diets containing corn to diets containing hybrid rye when given the choice, but growth performance is not reduced when hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

In many parts of the world, including the United States, corn is the primary energy source used in diets for pigs, but there are no published data comparing the growth performance of growing pigs fed diets in which hybrid rye replaces corn. Unfamiliarity with hybrid rye also makes some producers in the United States reluctant to try feeding hybrid rye to pigs, as there is a long-standing belief that rye is less palatable than other feed ingredients. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that there is no difference in feed preference for diets containing either hybrid rye or corn as the exclusive cereal grain source, and that hybrid rye may replace a portion of corn in diets for growing pigs without adversely affecting growth. 

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Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on growth performance, bone ash, plasma Ca and P, and carcass characteristics of pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Calcium requirements by pigs are expressed as total Ca because of a lack of data for the digestibility of Ca in feed ingredients, but it is believed that a ratio between standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P is a more appropriate way to express requirements for Ca by pigs. Values for Ca digestibility in different Ca-containing feed ingredients were recently generated using diets without or with microbial phytase, which allowed for the formulation of diets based on STTD Ca values. A number of experiments were also conducted to determine STTD Ca to STTD P requirements to optimize growth performance and bone mineralization of pigs from 11 to 25 kg, 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg. However, these experiments were performed independently and in experiments lasting only 3 to 5 weeks. Therefore, a follow-up experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the requirement for Ca expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P obtained in short-term experiments may be applied to pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase from 11 to 130 kg.

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Effect of replacing corn with bakery meal in diets for weanling pigs

Bakery meal consist of unsalable bread, breakfast cereals, cookies, pasta, and other foods that are no longer intended for human consumption. Bakery meal converts losses from the food industry into ingredients for the animal feed industry, thereby preventing food losses in the food chain. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most bakery products, and this results in bakery meal containing high concentration of starch. Therefore, bakery meal is a potential sustainable feed ingredient that can be used in animal diets without competing with the food industry. However, research demonstrating the effect of bakery meal on growth performance for weanling pigs is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that replacing corn with bakery meal will not influence growth performance of pigs.

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Effects of dietary isoleucine and valine supplementation to excess or low leucine diets on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in growing pigs

Leucine is a key regulator that stimulates catabolism of branched-chain AA (BCAA; i.e., Leu, Ile, and Val) in skeletal muscle and liver. If diets fed to pigs contain excess Leu, catabolism of all 3 BCAA may increase because of the stimulating effect of the Leu metabolite, α-keto isocaproate, on the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, which is responsible for degradation of the 3 branched-chain α-keto acids that originate from metabolism of the 3 BCAA. Serum Ile and Val concentrations were reduced by excess dietary Leu in growing pigs, and high dietary Leu reduces feed intake and growth performance in pigs, which may be a result of the imbalanced supply of BCAA that result from increased metabolism of Val and Ile. Recent data confirmed that excess dietary Leu reduced growth performance and tended to reduce protein synthesis, which is likely a result of reduced availability of Val and Ile.

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Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs

At weaning, pigs have to cope with abrupt withdrawal of sow milk, and this often causes appetite suppression due to marked changes in diet form and composition. Feed flavor and sweetener are believed to increase feed palatability, and subsequently improve feed intake, average daily gain, and immune response of weanling pigs. However, data that confirm this hypothesis are limited. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that supplementation of feed flavor and feed sweetener in diets fed to weanling pigs improve growth performance.

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Effect of NexPro (high-protein corn) on growth performance of weanling pigs

NexPro is a high protein feed ingredient that is generated via downstream processing of co-products from the dry-grind ethanol industry. Results from digestibility experiments indicate that NexPro contribute considerable quantities of amino acids and energy to diets fed to pigs, but there are no data demonstrating effects on growth performance of including NexPro in diets for weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that NexPro may replace other high-value protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without impacting pig growth performance.

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Effect of increasing levels of Sylpro yeast on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Sylpro enhanced torula yeast is a high protein feed ingredient derived from forestry by-products, and results from digestibility experiments indicate that Sylpro yeast may be a valuable source of energy and digestible amino acids in diets fed to weanling pigs. As a consequence, it is believed that Sylpro yeast may be included in diets for weanling pigs at the expense of fish meal and other animal protein sources. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing levels of Sylpro yeast improve growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum based diets may be improved by addition of a xylanase-cellulase enzyme mixture

Exogenous carbohydrases can be used in diets for pigs to increase digestibility of dietary fiber and energy in cereal grains and cereal co-products. The three main fibers in cereal grains and cereal co-products are arabinoxylans, cellulose, and mixed-linked beta glucans. The fermentability is different among these three types of fiber. Energy digestibility is often improved if xylanase is added to wheat-based diets, whereas positive responses to xylanase in corn-based diets have been difficult to demonstrate, indicating that fermentation of dietary fiber differs among ingredients. However, there is less information about effects of carbohydrases on digestibility of fiber and energy in sorghum-based diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that xylanase and cellulase improve the digestibility of energy and total dietary fiber in diets based on corn or sorghum with addition of high fiber co-products.

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Effects of including two sources of copper hydroxychloride in diets for growing-finishing pigs

Recent research conducted at the University of Illinois Swine Research Center demonstrated positive effects of feeding copper hydroxychloride to weanling pigs, including improved growth performance and positive changes in intestinal health. It is, however, not known if copper hydroxychloride would also elicit positive effects in growing-finishing pigs. Additionally, it is also not known if the positive effects of copper hydroxychloride are obtained regardless of the origin of the mineral, or if the response is specific to the product produced by a specific supplier. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of copper hydroxychloride in diets for growing-finishing pigs would improve growth performance, and secondly that the origin of the copper hydroxychloride is not important for the outcome.

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Effects of super dosing 4 different sources of phytase on amino acid digestibility

Dietary phytate may bind to proteins from feed ingredients by making indigestible nutrient-complexes. Therefore, it is possible that adding exogenous phytase to the diets increases digestibility of amino acids (AA). However, results of experiments in which microbial phytase has been added to diets fed to pigs have not consistently demonstrated increased ileal digestibility of AA. It is, however, possible that is because the dose of phytase was too low to obtain a positive effect on AA digestibility and that if greater doses were used, a positive response would be obtained. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that super dosing four different sources of commercially available exogenous phytase increases the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA in a corn-soybean meal (SBM) based diet fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of intrinsic phytase from hybrid rye on P and Ca digestibility in a corn-soybean meal diet

Rye contains considerable quantities of intrinsic phytase and the presence of phytase in rye may result in an increased P digestibility in pigs without using exogenous phytase. It is possible that the endogenous phytase in rye also increases P digestibility in other plant feed ingredients by releasing P from the phytate. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating this effect have been published. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of rye in diets containing corn and soybean meal (SBM) without or with microbial phytase improves the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and thus the ATTD of P is not additive in the mixed diet.

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Effects of inclusion of hybrid rye in diets on growth performance and diarrhea incidence of weanling pigs

Production of hybrid rye in North America is increasing after being introduced to Canada and the United States in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Compared with corn, hybrid rye contains similar amounts of standardized ileal digestible amino acids, a greater concentration of standardized total tract digestible P, and approximately 94% of the metabolizable energy. Hybrid rye contains more fermentable dietary fiber than corn, which has the potential to improve gut health, but its reduced digestibility of amino acids may simultaneously have a negative impact on the health of the large intestine. Two experiments were conducted to determine the maximum amount of hybrid rye that can be included in diets for weanling pigs without influencing growth performance or diarrhea incidence.

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Digestibility of energy, and total dietary fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean expeller and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

When soybeans are crushed, the oil may be solvent extracted and the resulting defatted soybeans are known as soybean meal (SBM). However, the oil may also be mechanically expelled from the beans and the defatted soybeans resulting from this procedure is an ingredient known as soybean expellers. The expelling procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the beans and soybean expellers, therefore, contain more residual oil than SBM. Soybean expellers can be produced using different technologies, and a new procedure involving a patented high shear dry extrusion procedure was recently developed (Insta-Pro International, Des Moines, IA). There are however, no data for the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and total dietary fiber (TDF) and DE and ME concentrations in the soybean expellers that are produced from this procedure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and TDF and concentrations of DE and ME are greater in soybean expellers than in SBM when fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of dietary leucine and tryptophan supplementation on serotonin metabolism and growth performance of growing pigs

Tryptophan is an indispensable AA that is often limiting for growth in pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets. Tryptophan may act as a regulator of feed intake by enhancing serotonin signaling in the brain, because Trp is a precursor for serotonin. High Trp intake increases feed intake, and this is partly attributed to increased serotonin synthesis. Availability of dietary Trp in the brain is considered the rate-limiting step in hypothalamic serotonin synthesis. However, to be transported into the brain, Trp competes with other large neutral AA such as Val, Leu, Ile, Tyr, and Phe for a common transporter (L-type AA transporter 1) to cross the blood-brain barrier.

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Digestibility of amino acids is greater in soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

When soybeans are crushed, the oil may be solvent extracted and the resulting defatted soybeans are known as soybean meal (SBM). However, the oil may also be mechanically expelled from the beans and the defatted soybeans resulting from this procedure is an ingredient known as soybean expellers. The expelling procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the beans and soybean expellers, therefore, contain more residual oil than SBM. Soybean expellers can be produced using different technologies, and a new procedure involving a patented high shear dry extrusion procedure was recently developed (Insta-Pro International, Des Moines, IA). There are however, no data for the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in the soybean expellers that are produced from this procedure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AAis greater in soybean expellers than in SBM when fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy and phosphorus and concentration of metabolizable energy in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains fed to growing pigs

Recently a high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDGS; ProCap DDGS, Marquis Energy, Hennepin, IL) was developed and the HP-DDGS has greater concentrations of CP and fat, but contains less fiber compared with conventional DDGS, which may affect the digestibility of energy and P and concentrations of DE and ME. There are, however, no data for the nutritional value of this new source of DDGS. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in HP-DDGS are greater than in conventional DDGS.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs

Most diets for weanling pigs contain highly digestible plant and animal proteins, but there is an increasing trend to include more fibrous co-products in diets for pigs due to reduced diet costs. However, feeding diets to nursery pigs with high concentration of dietary fiber may reduce nutrient digestibility, induce intestinal inflammation, and subsequently depress growth performance. Addition of 100 to 200 mg/kg of Cu from Cu hydroxychloride (IntelliBond CII; Micronutrients USA LLC; Indianapolis, IN) to diets improves feed efficiency and reduces post weaning diarrhea in pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the effect of Cu hydroxychloride on intestinal barrier integrity of pigs fed low-fiber or high-fiber diets, and it is not known if Cu hydroxychloride influences immune responses of pigs. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 150 mg/kg of Cu from Cu hydroxychloride reduces intestinal permeability and subsequently improves growth performance of pigs fed diets without or with high concentration of dietary fiber.

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