Research Reports

Effects of different watering options on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of a probiotic Bacillus strain on ileal digestibility of crude protein, dry matter, starch, energy and fat and total tract digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in diets fed to weanling pigs

Addition of probiotics to swine diets may improve gut health by modifying the microflora, which may help control pathogens, enhance immune response, and increase nutrient digestibility. Once consumed by the pig, probiotics enter the stomach where they are subjected to a low pH and pepsin. The Bacillus strain are metabolically inactive spores that are thermostable and survive at a low pH and, therefore, are thought to survive feed processing and digestion in the stomach. Addition of a Bacillus strain may enhance fermentation of dietary fiber in swine diets and, subsequently, increase the available energy from the diet in the form of volatile fatty acids. Bacillus strain also may degrade non-starch polysaccharides to reducing sugars that may serve as an energy source for the pig. A novel probiotic Bacillus toyonensis M15750 has been developed, but there are limited data to demonstrate the efficacy of this probiotic to increase nutrient digestibility. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that probiotic Bacillus toyonensis M15750 improve the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients when included in diets fed by weanling pigs.

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Ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in pig diets supplemented with a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase

The effect of microbial phytase on Ca and P digestibility in diets for pigs and poultry is well established. In poultry, it also appears that the effect of phytase in increasing amino acid (AA) digestibility is consistent, but that is not the case when phytase is added to diets for pigs. However, in many experiments, relatively low levels of phytase was used and it is not known if greater concentrations of phytase will result in a different result. A novel phytase has been recently developed; however, it is also not known if this phytase source can increase digestibility of AA and other nutrients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of the novel phytase in diets for growing pigs increases the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and AA, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and minerals.

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Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3)and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations on energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) are vitamin D metabolites that may be added to diets for pigs. Because 1-α-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 1-position, only the first hydroxylation in the liver at the 25-position is needed to convert the metabolite to calcitriol. Likewise, because the 25-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 25-position, only the second hydroxylation in the kidney at the 1-position is needed if this metabolite is used. It is possible that supplementation of diets with 25-OH-D3 or 1-α-OH-D3 increases absorption and retention of Ca and P by increasing the conversion efficiency to calcitriol compared with the conversion of cholecalciferol to calcitriol. It is possible that the effects on Ca and P balance differ between 25-OH-D3 and 1-α-OH-D, but research to test this hypothesis has not been reported.

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Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn-soybean meal diets without or with full fat or defatted rice bran

The physiological stage of pigs may influence total tract digestibility of nutrients because the digestibility of energy and some nutrients increases as body weight increases, but the impact of physiological stage may be greater for high-fiber diets than for diets with less concentration of fiber. Full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) are produced in the rice milling process and is available for animal feeding. However, because of the high concentration of dietary fiber, FFRB and DFRB may be better suited for diets fed to sows than for diets for weanling or growing pigs, but there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in FFRB and DFRB fed to sows. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null-hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and P in a corn-soybean meal diet and in diets containing FFRB or DFRB is not different between lactating sows and gestating sows if both groups are allowed to consume their diet on an ad libitum basis.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets based on conventional corn or high-oil corn

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn) which is believed to contain greater concentrations of oil and crude protein than conventional corn. Indeed, results from digestibility experiments indicated that high-oil corn contained more standardized ileal digestible amino acids, digestible P, and metabolizable energy compared with conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that the newly developed high-oil corn may improve pig growth performance, but data to demonstrate this are limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that high-oil corn improves growth performance of weanling pigs.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets with spray-dried bovine plasma or hydrolyzed spray-dried bovine plasma

Spray-dried plasma protein is commonly used in weanling diets due its functional components and high concentration of digestible amino acids. Hydrolyzed spray-dried bovine plasma (H-SDBP) is a new source of spray-dried plasma protein that may be used as a protein source in diets for weanling pigs. There are, however, no data to demonstrate the efficacy of this novel source. Pigs fed diets spray-dried plasma protein have increased growth performance when exposed to a challenge model; therefore, it is possible that H-SDBP improves performance of challenged pigs similarly as other sources of spray-dried plasma protein. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary inclusion of H-SDBP is as effective as spray-dried bovine plasma (SDBP) in increasing growth performance of weanling pigs housed in uncleaned pens.

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Effects of increasing dietary protein on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal and soy protein concentrate fed to growing pigs

Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) is affected by CP and AA concentrations in diets because of the different contributions of endogenous N and AA to the ileal digesta from pigs fed diets with different concentrations of CP. Because of the influence of dietary CP and AA on calculated values for AID, values for AID obtained in individual feed ingredients are not always additive in mixed diets if the concentration of CP and AA in the mixed diet is different from that of the ingredients. Therefore, values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, which are corrected for the basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA, are used in diet formulations to avoid the influence of endogenous AA on digestibility values, and SID values are, therefore, additive in mixed diets.

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Effects of phosphorus level and increasing phytase dose on basal endogenous loss of calcium and balance of phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing phytate P at commercial level

In plant-based feed ingredients there is a considerable amount of P bound to phytate, limiting the amount of P that is available for utilization, but inclusion of microbial phytase in pig diets increases the digestibility of P. The negatively charged phytate molecule can chelate Ca cations resulting in formation of insoluble Ca-phytate complexes. Degradation of phytate by microbial phytase may prevent formation of these non-digestible complexes, resulting in increased Ca digestibility. It is also possible that use of exogenous phytase reduces endogenous loss of Ca. If indeed the reduced endogenous loss of Ca is a result of degradation of phytate, it is expected that increased doses of dietary phytase will linearly reduce endogenous losses of Ca, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of Ca and increases digestibility of P in growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein, and fat and concentration of metabolizable energy in sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal (SFM) is a protein source that can be included in diets for pigs and other livestock species. In addition to providing amino acids, SFM also provide energy and other nutrients to diets, but because of the high concentration of fiber, SFM does not contain as much energy as other oilseed meals. The nutritive value of SFM depend on growing area, degree of de-hulling, and oil extraction process. Sunflower meal is obtained through a prepress-solvent extraction method, which yields a meal product with less than 3% fat. However, a double press procedure without solvent extraction may also be used to remove oil from the seeds, which results in generation of a co-product called sunflower expellers (SFE). Because the double-press procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the seeds, SFE contains between 6 and 10% oil. The concentration of fiber and protein also varies among different sources of SFM and SFE and is largely determined by the degree of de-hulling that takes place prior to oil extraction. Because the hulls are very high in fiber, there is a linear relationship between fiber concentration and the concentration of hulls in SFM and SFE, and there is a negative relationship between fiber and protein concentrations. However, data on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in different sources of sunflower co-products are limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy and concentrations of DE and ME in SFM fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there are no difference in the ATTD of nutrients and energy concentrations between SFM and SFE fed to growing pigs.

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The amino acid digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid score for rapeseed protein isolate increases after moderate heating resulting in a protein quality similar to whey protein isolate

Rapeseed is the second most produced oilseed in the world after soybean, and after the oil is extracted, a protein-rich meal is the resulting byproduct containing greater concentrations of sulfur amino acids (AA; i.e., Met and Cys) and Lys compared with legumes and cereal grains. Rapeseed proteins have great potential as a high-quality plant-based protein for humans due to their well-balanced AA profile, high metabolic utilization of protein, a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) similar to soy and milk proteins, and easily separable antinutritional factors. However, to our knowledge, digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has not been determined for rapeseed protein isolate and the level of processing required to concentrate rapeseed into a protein isolate warrants further evaluation of its protein quality. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that heat treatment of rapeseed protein isolate will increase the digestibility of AA by growing pigs and result in a DIAAS that is comparable to soy and animal protein isolates.

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Effects of increasing phytase dose on total tract digestibility of minerals and energy in pigs

In most plant feed ingredients, the majority of P is bound to phytate, which reduces digestibility of P in pigs, and therefore, the concentration of digestible P in these ingredients is relatively low. Phytate is negatively charged in the intestinal tract and can bind both endogenous and dietary nutrients, which results in precipitation of non-digestible nutrient-phytate complexes. Therefore, it is possible that the use of exogenous phytase can also increase the digestibility of other nutrients than P. As an example, addition of exogenous phytase to diets also releases Ca from phytate, and thus, increases the digestibility of Ca. However, it has not been conclusively demonstrated that phytase also increases the digestibility of energy-generating nutrients and other minerals in diets fed to pigs and inconsistent results among experiments have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that increasing phytase dose increases the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals and gross energy (GE) in corn and soybean meal-based diets fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets for pigs. Different technologies are used to develop high protein corn co-products, but in addition to providing amino acids to the diets, high protein corn co-products also provide energy to the diets. The energy concentrations in corn protein may depend on the concentrations of fat, carbohydrates, and protein in sources of corn protein. Newly developed corn proteins contain 40 to 50% crude protein. There are, however, limited data on how differences in the chemical composition of different sources of corn protein influence the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) when fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentrations of DE and ME among 3 sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets with different inclusion levels of a cheese co-product

Whey, which is a co-product from dairy processing plants that extract fat and protein from milk to make cheese, has been used in diets fed to weanling pigs as a source of lactose. Whey powder does not contain much protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, cheese co-products, which contain 40 to 50% crude protein may be used in the feeding of pigs, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of cheese co-products fed to pigs. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that a cheese co-product may replace traditional protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without affecting growth performance.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets fed to pigs. Newly developed corn proteins are high protein feed ingredients with approximately 40 to 50% crude protein (CP), and corn protein may be a great source of digestible amino acids (AA) in diets fed to weanling pigs. There are, however, limited data on the digestibility of AA in different sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 3 different sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Effect of phytase on weaning piglet performance when fed diets supplemented with pharmacological levels of Zn

Pharmacological levels of Zn (i.e., 2,000 to 3,000 mg/kg) is often included in diets for weanling pigs to prevent post-weaning diarrhea. However, pharmacological levels of Zn may reduce microbial phytase efficacy by chelating the phytate molecule, which subsequently prevents access for phytase.  However, it is possible that this effect can be reduced by adding more phytase to diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of phytase increases pig growth performance and mineral digestibility in diets with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn.

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Relative bioavailability by nursery pigs of Zn in a new source of Zn-glycinate

Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is needed for growth, bone development, and immune competence. Inorganic Zn sources such as Zn oxide and Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) are most commonly used in swine diets. However, because of low bioavailability of Zn the inorganic Zn sources chelated Zn sources may be used instead because these sources have greater bioavailability of Zn. Chelated zinc may also reduce reactiveness with other components of the diet. A new chelated Zn source, zinc bis-glycinate, in which Zn is bound to two glycine molecules, was recently developed, but there is limited information about effects of this new chelated Zn source on digestibility and Zn retention in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the relative bioavailability by weanling pigs of Zn in Zn bis-glycinate is greater than in Zn mono-glycinate and in ZnSO4.

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Analyzed values for P and phytate in feed ingredients

Phytic acid is the main storage of P in plants, and most P in plant feed ingredients is bound in the phytate complex. Because pigs do not secrete phytase, an enzyme to hydrolyze inositol bonds in phytate, the utilization of P by pigs is very low. Addition of supplemental phytase to diets thus results in release of P and increases P utilization by pigs. However, all enzymes have a special recognition mechanism called specificity that works only with molecules that fit to active sites of the enzyme. Therefore, it is important to know how much of P is phytate-bound and how much of the P in a given diet is not phytate-bound.

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Effects of reducing the concentration of Ca and P and increasing microbial phytase on gastric pH, fecal score, plasma inositol, growth performance, and bone ash of weanling pigs

The limited capacity for weanling pigs to secret HCl in the stomach may be exacerbated by inclusion of ingredients with high acid binding capacity such as limestone and monocalcium phosphate. As a consequence, reducing the amount of these 2 ingredients in diets for weanling pigs may contribute to a stable low pH for proper pepsin activity and increased action of microbial phytase. Inclusion of high doses of phytase that results in increased phytate degradation and increased release of Ca, P, and inositol may also be beneficial to newly weaned pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that lowering dietary Ca and P reduces gastric pH and diarrhea of weanling pigs, but microbial phytase may overcome negative effects of low Ca and P on growth performance and bone ash.

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Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in beef or pork burgers are greater than in plant-based burgers

In the U.S. and most other developed countries, animal-based proteins provide a significant portion of the human diet. However, predictions for animal protein consumption indicates that consumption in Europe and North America will begin to decline by 2035 because plant-based proteins have become accepted as having an appearance, texture, and taste that is close to that of animal products. Examples of plant based proteins that are already on the market are plant-based burgers such as the Impossible Burger and the Beyond Burger, which are produced primarily from soy and pea protein, respectively. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is recommended by FAO as the best method to determine protein quality in human foods. This method allows for calculation of the protein value of both individual ingredients and combined meals consisting of several proteins. Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated that values for DIAAS obtained in milk and breakfast cereals are additive in mixed meals, and the principle of additivity is believed to be applicable to all types of combined meals, but additional research to demonstrate this is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine DIAAS values for animal and plant-based burgers and test the hypothesis that DIAAS calculated for a burger and a burger bun are additive in a combined meal.

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