Amino acid digestibility

Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets fed to pigs. Newly developed corn proteins are high protein feed ingredients with approximately 40 to 50% crude protein (CP), and corn protein may be a great source of digestible amino acids (AA) in diets fed to weanling pigs. There are, however, limited data on the digestibility of AA in different sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 3 different sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Corn protein has greater concentrations of digestible amino acids and energy than low-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to pigs but does not affect the growth performance of weanling pigs

Acosta, Jessica P., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Neil W. Jaworski, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Corn protein has greater concentrations of digestible amino acids and energy than low-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to pigs but does not affect the growth performance of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 7, 1–12. doi:10.1093/jas/skab175.

Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in beef or pork burgers are greater than in plant-based burgers

In the U.S. and most other developed countries, animal-based proteins provide a significant portion of the human diet. However, predictions for animal protein consumption indicates that consumption in Europe and North America will begin to decline by 2035 because plant-based proteins have become accepted as having an appearance, texture, and taste that is close to that of animal products. Examples of plant based proteins that are already on the market are plant-based burgers such as the Impossible Burger and the Beyond Burger, which are produced primarily from soy and pea protein, respectively. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is recommended by FAO as the best method to determine protein quality in human foods. This method allows for calculation of the protein value of both individual ingredients and combined meals consisting of several proteins. Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated that values for DIAAS obtained in milk and breakfast cereals are additive in mixed meals, and the principle of additivity is believed to be applicable to all types of combined meals, but additional research to demonstrate this is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine DIAAS values for animal and plant-based burgers and test the hypothesis that DIAAS calculated for a burger and a burger bun are additive in a combined meal.

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Nutritional value of a new source of fermented soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D. , Maryane S. F. Oliveira, L. Vanessa Lagos, Terry L. Weeden, Aileen J. Mercado, and Hans H. Stein. 2000. Nutritional value of a new source of fermented soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 12, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa357. Link to full text.

Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced by autoclaving soybean meal

Oliveira, M. S. F., M. K. Wiltafsky, S. A. Lee, K. W. Kwon, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced by autoclaving soybean meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 114621. Link to full text.

Crystalline amino acids do not influence calculated values for standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients included in diets for pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., Jerubella J. Abelilla, Neil W. Jaworski, John K. Htoo, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Crystalline amino acids do not influence calculated values for standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients included in diets for pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 11, 1–8.  doi:10.1093/jas/skaa333.

Digestibility of amino acids in a new source of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product from the dry-grind ethanol production. However, quality and nutrient content of DDGS may differ among sources and origins and new technologies allow for production of DDGS with different chemical compositions as well as nutritional values. Recently a high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG; ProCap DDGS, Marquis Energy, Hennepin, IL) was introduced and the HP-DDG has greater concentrations of CP and fat, but contains less fiber compared with conventional DDGS, which may affect the digestibility of AA in HP-DDG compared with conventional DDGS. There are, however, no data for the digestibility of AA in this new source of DDGS. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in HP-DDG is greater than in conventional DDGS when fed to growing pigs.

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Protein quality evaluation in processed human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology

Bailey, H. M., E. P. Berg, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Protein quality evaluation in processed human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 423-424. (Abstr.).  Link to full text

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Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid digestibility, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing pigs

Curry Shelby M., Laia Blavi, Julian Wiseman, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid digestibility, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2019.3:641–653. Link to full text

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Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets

Huang, C., H. H. Stein, and G. A. Casas. 2016. Optimising soy protein concentrate use in pig diets. Pages 32-33 in Pig Progress, July 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, energy, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in conventional and extruded yellow dent corn, wheat, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

Extrusion of cereal grains may be used to improve nutrient digestibility in cereal grains because addition of heat and pressure in combination with addition of moisture during the extrusion may gelatinize the starch, which results in an increase in starch digestibility. It is also possible that AA and energy digestibility are increased by the extrusion, but data to verify this hypothesis have not been published. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of AA and starch and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ADF, NDF, and GE as well as the concentrations of DE and ME in corn, wheat, and sorghum are increased by extrusion.

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in selected feed ingredients fed to young growing pigs

Casas, G. A., N. W. Jaworski, J. K. Htoo, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in selected feed ingredients fed to young growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2361–2370. Link to abstract

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High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end– back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D. and H. H. Stein. 2018. High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end– back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:1869-1876. Link to abstract

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Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Sangrovit G is a phytogenic feed additive derived from Macleaya cordata composed of isoquinoline alkaloids (IQ), primarily sanguinarine, that are believed to benefit animal performance. Sanguinarine has anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antimicrobial effects. As a result, inclusion of IQ in diets for pigs may reduce inflammation in the intestine and thereby increase absorption of essential nutrients.

However, there are no data published for the effects of IQ on digestibility of crude protein, amino acids, starch, and lipids in pigs. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract and starch in corn-soybean meal diets fed to young growing pigs increases as IQ is added to the diet.

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Effect of drying method of ileal digesta on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids by pigs

Lagos, L. V. and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effect of drying method of ileal digesta on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids by pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):181 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Chemical composition and digestibility of energy, dry matter, amino acids, and fiber in wheat middlings and red dog fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A., D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Chemical composition and digestibility of energy, dry matter, amino acids, and fiber in wheat middlings and red dog fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):175-176 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end-back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D. and H. H. Stein. 2018. High-protein distillers dried grains with solubles produced using a novel front-end-back-end fractionation technology has greater nutritional value than conventional distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):174 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and fat and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, D. A., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and fat and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):173-174 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids, energy, fat, and fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Lee, S. A., C. D. Espinosa, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Digestibility of amino acids, energy, fat, and fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):172-173 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of Sangrovit® Extra on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, crude protein, acid hydrolyzed ether extract and starch by weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, C. M. and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of Sangrovit® Extra on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, crude protein, acid hydrolyzed ether extract and starch by weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):152 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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