Phosphorus

Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs

Archs Toledo, Joan L., Su A Lee, Molly L. McGhee, Gonzalo G. Mateos, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa295. Link to full text.

Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, Minoy, Jessica P. Acosta, Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa200.

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Is the Phosphorus in Rye More Digestible?

Archs Toledo, J. L., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Is the phosphorus in rye more digestible? Pork Magazine, April 8, 2020. Link to full text.

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Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker

Lee, Su A.,  L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker. Journal of Animal Science, 2020,  Vol. 98: No. 3:1-8.

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Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Lagos, Vanessa L., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1-9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz375. Link to full text.

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Effects of intrinsic phytase from hybrid rye on P and Ca digestibility in a corn-soybean meal diet

Rye contains considerable quantities of intrinsic phytase and the presence of phytase in rye may result in an increased P digestibility in pigs without using exogenous phytase. It is possible that the endogenous phytase in rye also increases P digestibility in other plant feed ingredients by releasing P from the phytate. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating this effect have been published. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of rye in diets containing corn and soybean meal (SBM) without or with microbial phytase improves the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and thus the ATTD of P is not additive in the mixed diet.

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Balance calcium effect on phosphorus in late-gestation sows’ diets

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Balance calcium effect on phosphorus in late-gestation sows’ diets. National Hog Farmer. August 29, 2019. Link to full text

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Effects of a novel corn-expressed E. coli phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorous, growth performance, and bone ash in young growing pigs

Blavi, Laia, Cristhiam J. Muñoz, Jonathan N. Broomhead, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of a novel corn-expressed E. coli phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorous, growth performance, and bone ash in young growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:3390–3398. Link to full text.

Phosphorus and energy digestibility of Fermex 200 (fermented soybean meal) fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most important protein sources in swine diets. However, most P in SBM is bound to phytate, which increases inclusion of inorganic P in diets for pigs. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. Fermex 200 (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA) is a new source of fermented SBM that may serve as an alternative to other protein sources in diets fed to pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing Fermex 200 and no data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations of Fermex 200.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in conventional SBM and Fermex 200. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in Fermex 200 are greater than in conventional SBM.

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Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

McGhee, Molly L., Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum fed to growing pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2019.  Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 1238–1245. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of phosphorus in enhanced torula yeast and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

An enhanced torula yeast was recently developed as a natural alternative protein source to fish meal and other animal proteins. This ingredient has a lower carbon footprint than other available yeast proteins because it is derived from forestry by-products. The enhanced torula yeast has an improved amino acid (AA) profile, a greater digestibility of AA than fish meal, and an energy value that is not different from that in fish meal. However, there are no data available about the digestibility values of P in this new ingredient. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in enhanced torula yeast are not different from those in fish meal.

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Sows in mid-gestation have reduced digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing pigs

Lee, S., C. Walk, and H. Stein. 2018. Sows in mid-gestation have reduced digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S193-194. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium carbonate, and retention of calcium in gestating sows change during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium

Lee Su A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium carbonate, and retention of calcium in gestating sows change during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:1712–1721. Link to full text.

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Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs

Arredondo Mónica A., Gloria A. Casas, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 27 - 36. Link to full text.

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Nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum, red sorghum, white sorghum, and yellow dent corn fed to growing pigs

Sorghum is used as an alternative to corn due to its lower cost and wide availability. However, conventional sorghum contains high concentration of tannin and phytate, which act as antinutritional factors. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. High-lysine sorghum is a new variety of sorghum which may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing sorghum and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in sorghum varieties. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high-lysine sorghum is not different from that of corn and other sources of sorghum.

 

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Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility, and retention of calcium in gestating sows changes during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium by gestating sows

Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca has been determined for most Ca containing ingredients fed to growing pigs, but the basal endogenous loss of Ca is greater and the STTD of Ca in sows in mid-gestation are less than in growing pigs. As a consequence, if diets for gestating sows are formulated using STTD values determined in growing pigs, the provisions of digestible Ca may be less than anticipated.

The efficacy of phytase to release Ca and P is believed to be influenced by the physiological state of pigs with phytase fed to sows in mid-gestation releasing less Ca and P compared with growing pigs or sows in late-gestation. However, it is not known if values for STTD of Ca or retention of Ca and P that are measured in one period of gestation are representative of the entire gestation period.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the STTD of Ca from calcium carbonate and the response to microbial phytase on STTD of Ca and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in corn-based diets fed to gestating sows are constant throughout the gestating period for sows. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that retention of Ca and P does not change during gestation.

 

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Comparative digestibility and retention rate of calcium and phosphorus in low- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Digestibility of Ca and P is most correctly determined as standardized total tract digestibility (STTD). Data for the STTD of P in most feed ingredients have been published, and the STTD of Ca has also been determined in many feed ingredients. However, in practical diet formulation, values for STTD of Ca and P obtained in growing pigs are also applied to sows although there is a lack of comparative data between growing pigs and sows.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that no differences exist between gestating sows and growing pigs for basal endogenous losses, STTD, and retention of Ca and P.

 

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Inclusion of excess dietary calcium in diets for 100- to 130-kg growing pigs reduces feed intake and daily gain if dietary phosphorus is at or below the requirement

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Inclusion of excess dietary calcium in diets for 100- to 130-kg growing pigs reduces feed intake and daily gain if dietary phosphorus is at or below the requirement. J. Anim. Sci. 95:5439-5446. Link to abstract

Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances. J. Anim. Sci. 94:5272-5285. Link to full text (.pdf)

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