Phosphorus

Analyzed values for P and phytate in feed ingredients

Phytic acid is the main storage of P in plants, and most P in plant feed ingredients is bound in the phytate complex. Because pigs do not secrete phytase, an enzyme to hydrolyze inositol bonds in phytate, the utilization of P by pigs is very low. Addition of supplemental phytase to diets thus results in release of P and increases P utilization by pigs. However, all enzymes have a special recognition mechanism called specificity that works only with molecules that fit to active sites of the enzyme. Therefore, it is important to know how much of P is phytate-bound and how much of the P in a given diet is not phytate-bound.

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Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones

Lee, Su A, L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skab149.

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Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total calcium. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 5, 1–7. doi:10.1093/jas/skab138.

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Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 3, 1–11. doi:10.1093/jas/skab057.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets

Ren, Ping, Laia Blavi, Caroline González-Vega, Yanhong Liu, Deana Hancock, Mercedes Vazquez-Añón, Ferdinando N. Almeida, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci.

The effect of increasing phytase dose to 1000 FTU/kg on phosphorous and calcium digestibility in pigs fed diets without inorganic P

Rundle, Carly M., Barthold Hillen, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Anne-Marie Debicki-Garnier, Hans H Stein. 2020. The effect of increasing phytase dose to 1000 FTU/kg on phosphorous and calcium digestibility in pigs fed diets without inorganic P. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_4, November 2020, Pages 100-101. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Mineral composition of feed grade monocalcium phosphate

Lopez, Diego A., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Mineral composition of feed grade monocalcium phosphate. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 200. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Cristobal Romero, Minoy A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 187. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Young Scholar Presentation: Digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in feed ingredients fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Young Scholar Presentation: Digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in feed ingredients fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 111. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Dietary calcium decreases digestibility of phosphorus in late gestating sows, but blood biomarkers may be used to predict bone formation and resorption

Lee, Su A, Mike R. Bedford, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Dietary calcium decreases digestibility of phosphorus in late gestating sows, but blood biomarkers may be used to predict bone formation and resorption. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 105. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs

Lancheros, Paola, Vanessa Lagos, Hans H Stein. 2020. Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 62. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs

Archs Toledo, Joan L., Su A Lee, Molly L. McGhee, Gonzalo G. Mateos, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa295. Link to full text.

Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, Minoy, Jessica P. Acosta, Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa200.

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Is the Phosphorus in Rye More Digestible?

Archs Toledo, J. L., Su A Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Is the phosphorus in rye more digestible? Pork Magazine, April 8, 2020. Link to full text.

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Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker

Lee, Su A.,  L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker. Journal of Animal Science, 2020,  Vol. 98: No. 3:1-8.

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Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Lagos, Vanessa L., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1-9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz375. Link to full text.

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Effects of intrinsic phytase from hybrid rye on P and Ca digestibility in a corn-soybean meal diet

Rye contains considerable quantities of intrinsic phytase and the presence of phytase in rye may result in an increased P digestibility in pigs without using exogenous phytase. It is possible that the endogenous phytase in rye also increases P digestibility in other plant feed ingredients by releasing P from the phytate. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating this effect have been published. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of rye in diets containing corn and soybean meal (SBM) without or with microbial phytase improves the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and thus the ATTD of P is not additive in the mixed diet.

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Balance calcium effect on phosphorus in late-gestation sows’ diets

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Balance calcium effect on phosphorus in late-gestation sows’ diets. National Hog Farmer. August 29, 2019. Link to full text

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