Phytase

The level of feed intake does not influence digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in diets fed to gestating sows, but gestating sows have reduced digestibility of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing gilts

Lee, S. A., G. A. Casas, and H. H. Stein. 2018. The level of feed intake does not influence digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in diets fed to gestating sows, but gestating sows have reduced digestibility of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing gilts. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 98:591-594. Link to abstract

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Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

She, Y., J. C. Sparks, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2804–2816. Link to abstract

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Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance, bone measurements, and Ca and P digestibility in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi, L., J. N. Broomhead, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance, bone measurements, and Ca and P digestibility in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):163 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Comparison between a novel phytase and a commercial phytase on growth performance and bone measurements in diets fed to growing pigs

Munoz Alfonso, C. J., L. Blavi, J. N. Broomhead, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Comparison between a novel phytase and a commercial phytase on growth performance and bone measurements in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):147-148 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of GraINzyme and AxtraPhy phytases in restoring performance and bone ash in pigs fed low-phosphorus and calcium diets

Last month's newsletter included a research report on research into a novel E. coli phytase expressed in corn, called GraINzyme. Results of that research indicated that adding GraINzyme phytase to diets fed to young growing pigs increased growth performance, digestibility of calcium and phosphorus, and bone mineralization. The comparative effects of GraINzyme and a commercial phytase was not tested in the previous study. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare effects of addition of GraINzyme phytase to the commercial phytase AxtraPhy in diets fed to growing pigs.

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Effect on growth performance and bone mineralization of GraINzyme phytase in diets fed to growing pigs

Most of the phosphorus in corn and other plant-based feed ingredients fed to pigs is bound to phytate. Pigs do not secrete phytase in adequate quantities to liberate significant amounts of phytate-bound phosphorus, meaning that most of the phosphorus in these ingredients is not biologically available. Calcium digestibility is also negatively affected by the presence of phytate in feed ingredients. One way for producers to ensure that pigs' requirements are met is to add supplementary phosphorus to diets. However, this adds to the cost of diets. The excretion of phytate-bound phosphorus also may contribute to algae overgrowth in waterways.

Another approach is to add supplemental phytase to the diets, to allow pigs to better utilize the phosphorus present in the ingredients. Phytases can be obtained from plants, animals, or microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and fungi).

GraINzyme is a source of phytase produced by genetically modified corn plants with genes derived from E. coli. In this experiment, the effect on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium and phosphorus, and bone mineralization of adding GraINzyme to weanling pig diets was tested.

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Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets

She, Y., Y. Liu, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 232:102-109. Link to abstract

Effects of exogenous phytase supplementation on phosphorus metabolism and digestibility of beef cattle

Long, C. J., L. B. Kondratovich, M. F. Westphalen, H. H. Stein, and T. L. Felix. 2017. Effects of exogenous phytase supplementation on phosphorus metabolism and digestibility of beef cattle. Transl. Anim. Sci. 1:168-178. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

She, Y., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:2061-2070. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi, L., D. Solà-Oriol, J. F. Pérez, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):85 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of exogenous phytase supplementation and dietary phosphorus concentration on metabolism and digestibility of beef cattle

Long, C. J., H. H. Stein, and T. L. Felix. 2017. Effects of exogenous phytase supplementation and dietary phosphorus concentration on metabolism and digestibility of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):52 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi, L., D. Sola-Oriol, J. F. Pérez, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:847-854. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for growing pigs. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1339-1344. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in diets fed to growing pigs

Zinc oxide, when added to weanling pig diets in pharmacological quantities of up to 2,500 mg/kg, can help prevent diarrhea during the post-weaning period. However, adding large quantities of zinc to diets has drawbacks. Zinc can interfere with calcium digestibility because it competes for the same transport pathway in cells lining the small intestine. Zinc may also reduce calcium digestibility by forming complexes with calcium and phytate.

The standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of calcium in various ingredients has only recently been determined, and possible interactions between zinc and phytase on the STTD of calcium have not yet been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of addition of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on STTD of calcium in diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in milk co-products fed to growing pigs

Milk co-products are used in pig diets to provide lactose and, in some cases, high quality protein. In addition, milk co-products also provide calcium to the diets. However, this calcium can potentially bind to the phytate contained in the plant ingredients in the diets, which would reduce its digestibility.

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Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in milk co-products fed to growing pigs

She, Y., D. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in milk co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):436-437 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of production area and microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Sotak-Peper, K. M., J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of production area and microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2397-2402. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance and metacarpal bone ash in weanling pigs

Liu, Y., J. C. González-Vega, M. Vázquez-Añón, J. Zhao, J. Escobar, F. N. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance and metacarpal bone ash in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):111-112 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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The effect of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2016. The effect of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients of animal origin

Most swine diets must be supplemented with calcium because most plant ingredients commonly used in diets for pigs contain relatively little calcium. One way to add calcium is to include inorganic sources such as dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate; however, animal ingredients such as meat byproduct meals can also be used. These ingredients, often used as a protein source, are also a good source of calcium. To our knowledge, values for apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of calcium in animal sources have not been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the ATTD and STTD of calcium in four calcium sources of animal origin.

The secondary objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of microbial phytase to diets containing calcium sources of animal origin would increase the digestibility of calcium. Although animal sources do not contain phytate, swine diets are composed primarily of plant ingredients, and the phytate in those ingredients might form complexes with the calcium in the animal sources.

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