Soybean meal

Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

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Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

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Digestibility of energy and nutrients and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean expellers and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, D., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of energy and nutrients and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean expellers and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 64. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Nutritional value of a new source of fermented soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D. , Maryane S. F. Oliveira, L. Vanessa Lagos, Terry L. Weeden, Aileen J. Mercado, and Hans H. Stein. 2000. Nutritional value of a new source of fermented soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 12, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa357. Link to full text.

Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced by autoclaving soybean meal

Oliveira, M. S. F., M. K. Wiltafsky, S. A. Lee, K. W. Kwon, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced by autoclaving soybean meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 114621. Link to full text.

The direct and difference procedures result in similar estimates for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., John K. Htoo, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. The direct and difference procedures result in similar estimates for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 8, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa225. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–8.

doi:10.1093/jas/skaa215. Link to full text.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal sourced from different countries and fed to pigs

Lopez, Diego A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal sourced from different countries and fed to pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268: 114600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114600.

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A review: 100 years of soybean meal. A historical look at the soybean and its use for animal feed.

Ruiz, N., C.M. Parsons, H. H. Stein, C.N. Coon, J. E. van Eys, and R. D. Miles. 2020. A review: 100 years of soybean meal, A historical look at the soybean and its use for animal feed. Feedstuffs. January 24, 2020. Link to full text.

Apparent energy, dry matter and amino acid digestibility of differently sourced soybean meal fed to Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda‐Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Jingping Guo, Hans H. Stein. Donald Allen Davis. 2020. Apparent energy, dry matter and amino acid digestibility of differently sourced soybean meal fed to Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Research. 2020;51:326–340, DOI: 10.1111/are.14378. Link to full text.

Digestibility of energy, and total dietary fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean expeller and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

When soybeans are crushed, the oil may be solvent extracted and the resulting defatted soybeans are known as soybean meal (SBM). However, the oil may also be mechanically expelled from the beans and the defatted soybeans resulting from this procedure is an ingredient known as soybean expellers. The expelling procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the beans and soybean expellers, therefore, contain more residual oil than SBM. Soybean expellers can be produced using different technologies, and a new procedure involving a patented high shear dry extrusion procedure was recently developed (Insta-Pro International, Des Moines, IA). There are however, no data for the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and total dietary fiber (TDF) and DE and ME concentrations in the soybean expellers that are produced from this procedure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and TDF and concentrations of DE and ME are greater in soybean expellers than in SBM when fed to growing pigs.

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Ileal digestibility of an enzyme-treated soybean meal for milk replacer in pre-weaned dairy calves

Ansia, I., H.H. Stein, C. Brøkner, D.A. Vermeire, and J.K. Drackley. 2019. Ileal digestibility of an enzyme-treated soybean meal for milk replacer in pre-weaned dairy calves. Abstract 14 in 37th ADSA Discover Conference Program: Natural Bioactives in Dairy Production: Science, Functions and the Future, Itasca, IL. (Abstr.). Link to full text.

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Digestibility of an enzyme treated soybean meal for calf starter in weaned dairy calves

Ansia, I., H.H. Stein, C. Brøkner, D.A. Vermeire, and J.K. Drackley. 2019. Digestibility of an enzyme treated soybean meal for calf starter in weaned dairy calves. Abstract 13 in 37th ADSA Discover Conference Program: Natural Bioactives in Dairy Production: Science, Functions and the Future, Itasca, IL. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of amino acids is greater in soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

When soybeans are crushed, the oil may be solvent extracted and the resulting defatted soybeans are known as soybean meal (SBM). However, the oil may also be mechanically expelled from the beans and the defatted soybeans resulting from this procedure is an ingredient known as soybean expellers. The expelling procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the beans and soybean expellers, therefore, contain more residual oil than SBM. Soybean expellers can be produced using different technologies, and a new procedure involving a patented high shear dry extrusion procedure was recently developed (Insta-Pro International, Des Moines, IA). There are however, no data for the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in the soybean expellers that are produced from this procedure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AAis greater in soybean expellers than in SBM when fed to growing pigs.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy by pigs in soybean meal sourced from different countries.

Lopez, D. A., L. V. Lagos, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Digestible and metabolizable energy by pigs in soybean meal sourced from different countries. Book of Abstracts. In: 1st International Feed Technology Congress, Cologne, Germany. p. 26. (Abstr.). Link to Abstract.

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Effects of heat treatment on digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean meal fed to pigs

Lee, S. A., M. S. F. Oliveira, W. B. Kwon, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of heat treatment on digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean meal fed to pigs. Book of Abstracts. In: 1st International Feed Technology Congress, Cologne, Germany. p. 33. (Abstr.). Link to Abstract.

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Nutrient composition and energy concentration in soybean meal from 5 different countries fed to pigs

Lagos, L. V., D. A. Lopez, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Nutrient composition and energy concentration in soybean meal from 5 different countries fed to pigs. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 159-160. (Abstr.). Link to full text

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Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on nutrient absorption and growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, C., V. Artuso-Ponte, and H. Stein. 2018. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on nutrient absorption and growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S200. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Evaluation of soybean meal from different sources as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Harsha Sameera Chathuranga Galkanda Arachchige, Xuan Qiu, Hans H. Stein, D. Allen Davis. 2019. Evaluation of soybean meal from different sources as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Research. 2019; 50: 1230–1247. Link to full text. 

Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial

Payling Laura, Tofuko A. Woyengo, Mogens Nielsen, Hans H. Stein, Maria C. Walsh, Luis Romero, and Susan Arent, 2019. Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019. 247:183-193. Link to full text.

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