Blood meal

Nutritional value of animal proteins fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Nutritional value of animal proteins fed to pigs. Pages 9-24 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 13, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Comparative amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

The U.S. slaughter industry produces blood co-products that may be used in diets for nursery pigs because of the high concentration and quality of protein they contain. The quality of protein in blood products can differ based on the processing techniques used.  In particular, products which are heated to too high a temperature during processing can sustain heat damage to amino acids due to the Maillard reaction. Lysine is particularly susceptible to heat damage.

An experiment was performed to determine the comparative amino acid digestibility in five different blood products fed to weanling pigs. Three are spray-dried products, which are dried quickly at temperatures of up to 225˚C. Spray-dried animal blood (SDAB) is manufactured from whole blood containing an anticoagulant. Spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) is manufactured from blood which has had the plasma separated out by centrifugation. Spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) are the red blood cells left after plasma separation. In addition to the spray-dried products, two sources of blood meal were tested – one from an avian source (avian blood meal, or ABM) and one from a porcine source (porcine blood meal, or PBM). These blood meals were dried using drum driers instead of spraydriers.

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Method evaluation for determining digestibility of rumen undegraded amino acids in blood meal

Boucher, S. E., S. Calsamiglia, M. D. Stern, C. M. Parsons, H. H. Stein, C. G. Schwab, K. W. Cotanch, J. W. Darrah, and J. K. Bernard. 2011. Method evaluation for determining digestibility of rumen undegraded amino acids in blood meal. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):388 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility of P in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility of P in blood products fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):120 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Blood meal and spray dried plasma protein are often included in diets fed to weanling pigs, and blood products are considered excellent sources of protein. The objective of this research was to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibililty (STTD) of phosphorus in spray dried animal plasma, porcine blood meal, and avian blood meal fed to weanling pigs. References such as the NRC typically provide relative bioavailability values for phosphorus rather than digestibility values. Relative bioavailability values, however, depend on the standard (e.g., monosodium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate) to which the availability is compared. Thus, these values are believed not to be additive in mixed diets. It is believed that STTD values are additive in mixed diets, and therefore will enable producers to formulate diets that accurately meet the phosphorus requirement of pigs without creating unneccesary excesses that are excreted in the manure.

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