Htoo

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in selected feed ingredients fed to young growing pigs

Casas, G. A., N. W. Jaworski, J. K. Htoo, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in selected feed ingredients fed to young growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2361–2370. Link to abstract

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Effects of various heat treatments on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Mathai, J. K., J. K. Htoo, M. Wiltafsky, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of various heat treatments on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):25-26 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts

Mathai, J. K, J. K. Htoo, J. E. Thomson, K. J. Touchette, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4217-4230. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of dietary fiber on the optimum threonine:lysine ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts

Mathai, J. K., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, K. J. Touchette, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of dietary fiber on the optimum threonine:lysine ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):298 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs. Animal 8:1594-1602. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in Europe from wheat, maize, or mixtures of wheat and maize and fed to growing pigs

Curry, S. M., J. K. Htoo, H. V. Masey O'Neill, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility of amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in Europe from wheat, maize, or mixtures of wheat and maize and fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):643 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in heat-damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in heat-damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal. J. Anim. Sci. 92:585-593. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 187:44-52. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 4:44. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in camelina products fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in camelina products fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 93:335-343. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

The production of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) involves a drying step in which temperature may reach 500°C or greater. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine's chemical structure makes it particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction. However, during the acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis, some lysine is recovered from Maillard products, but this lysine cannot be utilized by the animals, and thus, the amount of digestible lysine in a sample may be overestimated. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn DDGS fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in DDGS.

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Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):686 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Comparative amino acid digestibility in US blood products fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Comparative amino acid digestibility in US blood products fed to weanling pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 181:80-86. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition and on the amino acid digestibility of canola meal, sunflower meal, and cottonseed meal fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition and on the amino acid digestibility of canola meal, sunflower meal, and cottonseed meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):27 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):468-469 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in camelina seeds and camelina expellers fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in camelina seeds and camelina expellers fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Comparative amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

The U.S. slaughter industry produces blood co-products that may be used in diets for nursery pigs because of the high concentration and quality of protein they contain. The quality of protein in blood products can differ based on the processing techniques used.  In particular, products which are heated to too high a temperature during processing can sustain heat damage to amino acids due to the Maillard reaction. Lysine is particularly susceptible to heat damage.

An experiment was performed to determine the comparative amino acid digestibility in five different blood products fed to weanling pigs. Three are spray-dried products, which are dried quickly at temperatures of up to 225˚C. Spray-dried animal blood (SDAB) is manufactured from whole blood containing an anticoagulant. Spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) is manufactured from blood which has had the plasma separated out by centrifugation. Spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) are the red blood cells left after plasma separation. In addition to the spray-dried products, two sources of blood meal were tested – one from an avian source (avian blood meal, or ABM) and one from a porcine source (porcine blood meal, or PBM). These blood meals were dried using drum driers instead of spraydriers.

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal fed to pigs undergoes heat treatment to destroy trypsin inhibitors and other antinutritional factors that impair the digestion of protein and thus reduce performance. However, heat treatment can damage nutrients as well. In particular, the Maillard reaction reduces amino acid digestibility by combining amino acids with sugars to produce biologically unavailable compounds.

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in pigs fed soybean meal that had been heat treated in varying ways and for varying times. Conventional soybean meal was divided into four batches. One batch was not heated; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 15 minutes; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 30 minutes; and the last one was oven dried at 125°C for 30 minutes. Ten growing barrows were fed a total of five different diets. The experimental diets contained 40% each of the four different soybean meals being tested. An N-free diet was also formulated and fed to measure the basal endogenous loss of protein and amino acids.

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., B. G. Kim, J. K. Htoo, A. Lemme, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3617-3625. Link to full text (.pdf)