Amino acids

Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Laia Blavi, Diego M. D. L. Navarro, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Animal Bioscience Vol. 34, No. 10:1632-1642 October 2021. doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0838.

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Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D., N. S. Fanelli, H. H. Stein. 2021. Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280: 115040. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115040. Link to full text.

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Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No.

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Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal

Espinosa, Charmaine D., M. S. F. Oliveira, J. K. Htoo, H. H. Stein. 2021. Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology 277 (2021) 114948. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.114948. Link to full text.

Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A. S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 86–87. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.140. Link to Abstract.

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A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs

Acosta, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, N. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2021. A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 85–86. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.139. Link to Abstract.

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Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs

Bailey, H. M., H. H. Stein, and J. Campbell. 2021. Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 80–81. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.132. Link to Abstract.

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Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals

Fanelli, Natalia S., Hannah M. Bailey, Lía V. Guardiola, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals. The Journal of Nutrition, first published online, 2021. doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa398.

Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

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Amino acid digestibility in cheese co-product, in fish meal, and in HP 300 fed to weanling pigs

Whey, which is a co-product from dairy processing plants that extract fat and protein from milk to make cheese has been used in diets fed to weanling pigs as a source of lactose. Whey powder does not contain much protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, cheese co-products, which contain 40 to 50% crude protein may be used in the feeding of pigs but there is limited information about the nutritional value of cheese co-products fed to pigs. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) by weanling pigs in a cheese co-product and compare values to those obtained in fish meal and in a source of enzyme treated soybean meal (HP 300).

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Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs

Lancheros, Paola, Vanessa Lagos, Hans H Stein. 2020. Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 62. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of amino acids in a high protein corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the ethanol industry are often used in diets for pigs. A new source of corn protein (NexPro; Flint Hills Resources, Wichita, KS) has been developed, but at this time there is limited information about the nutritional value of this new source of corn protein. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids  in corn protein is greater than in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; i.e., DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) when fed to growing pigs.

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Conditioning and expansion increase nutritional value of soybean expellers

Soybean expellers contain trypsin inhibitors, which negatively affect nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency, and health status of animals. Therefore, heat treatment is needed to inactivate trypsin inhibitors to improve nutrient digestibility in soybean expellers. Different types and degrees of processing conditions may influence digestibility of energy and amino acids (AA) in soybean expellers, but there is a lack of data demonstrating how long heat treatment is needed if soybean expellers are expander processed after hydrothermical conditioning. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, as well as values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in soybean expellers increase the longer heat is applied to the expellers.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in six sources of partially de-hulled sunflower meal and one source of sunflower expellers from Ukraine, Hungary, Italy, and the U.S. when fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal, which is the co-product derived from sunflower seeds after oil extraction, has a high concentration of digestible amino acids (AA) and fiber. The nutritive value and quality of sunflower meal is partially dependent on the degree of dehulling, the variety of the sunflower, and the oil extraction process. Sunflower seeds are initially de-hulled and then partially de-oiled using a mechanial prepress procedure. A second de-oiling procedure is performed using a solvent extraction procedure or by usign a second mechanical expelling procedure. The prepress-solvent extraction procedure results in production of sunflower oil and sunflower meal that contains 1 to 3% oil, whereas the double-press procedure results in production of sunflower oil and a sunflower product that contains 5 to 10% residual oil and commonly is referred to as sunflower expellers. Some of the hulls may be added back to the sunflower meal or the sunflower expellers resulting in differences in concentrations of total dietary fiber among sources.

The apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AA in individual sources of partially de-hulled sunflower meal fed to pigs have been reported. However, there are no comparative values for the SID of AA in sunflower meal produced in different parts of the world, and it is not known if the SID of AA in sunflower meal are different from those in sunflower expellers. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the SID of CP and AA in different sources of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers obtained from different countries.

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Swine Nutrition

Stein, H. H. 2020. Swine Nutrition. Feedstuffs Reference Issue & Nutritional Guide. P. 35-40. Link to full text

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Nutrition Know-How: High-Shear Dry Soybean Expellers

Rodriguez, D. A., Su A Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Nutrition Know-How: High-Shear Dry Soybean Expellers. Pork Magazine, On-line edition, Aug. 2020. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa297.

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Effects of adding HCl to collection bags or collection pitchers on amino acid digestibility in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

In most AA digestibility experiments collection bags are changed at least every 30 min and the collected ileal digesta are stored at –20 °C to prevent microbial degradation of proteins. Other attempts to reduce microbial activity in digesta include adding acids to collection bags to reduce the pH in ileal digesta. Acids may also be added to collection pitchers. However, in some experiments, no attempt to reduce pH is made because it is assumed that the rapid reduction in temperature after collection is sufficient to prevent microbial degradation of proteins.

To our knowledge, there is, however, no information about the necessity of adding acids to collected digesta and it is not known if values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID), basal endogenous losses of AA, or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA are influenced by addition of acids to digesta. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null-hypothesis that values for AID, basal endogenous losses, and SID of AA are not influenced by addition of acids to ileal digesta collection bags or to collection pitchers.

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The direct and difference procedures result in similar estimates for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., John K. Htoo, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. The direct and difference procedures result in similar estimates for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 8, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa225. Link to full text.

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Values for digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) determined in pigs for breakfast cereals and milk are additive in combined breakfast cereal-milk meals

Breakfast cereals are usually consumed with milk as a breakfast meal. To meet requirements for amino acids (AA), higher quality proteins are needed to complement the protein in cereals to provide a meal that is adequate in all indispensable AA. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) method used to determine protein quality allows for calculation of the protein value of individual ingredients and mixed meals consisting of several proteins. Values for DIAAS are based on values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA that are corrected for the basal endogenous loss of each individual AA, resulting in values defined as standardized ileal digestibility (SID). Values for SID of AA are additive in mixed meals because these values are independent of basal endogenous losses. Consequently, it is expected that DIAAS obtained for individual food ingredients are additive in a mixed meal, but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that AA in milk complement AA in breakfast cereals to provide a balanced meal and that DIAAS in individual foods are additive in a combined meal.  

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