Amino acids

Effects of increasing dietary protein on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) is affected by dietary AA levels because of different contributions of endogenous AA to the ileal digesta from pigs fed diets with different levels of AA. Because of the influence of dietary protein and AA on calculated values for AID, values for AID obtained in individual feed ingredients are not always additive in mixed diets. Therefore, values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, which are corrected for the basal ileal endogenous losses of AA, are used in diet formulations to avoid the influence of endogenous AA on digestibility values, and SID values are, therefore, additive in mixed diets.

When the direct procedure is used to determine AA digestibility, diets containing cereal grains are sometimes formulated to contain AA below the requirement. In contrast, if the SID of oilseed meals or other protein-rich ingredients are determined, concentrations of AA may be at or above the requirement. Because the influence of the basal endogenous losses of AA is eliminated in the calculations of SID values, it is assumed that values for SID are not influenced by dietary concentrations of AA. However, to our knowledge this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified, but it is an important question because it may influence how diets used in digestibility experiments are formulated. Therefore, four experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the SID of AA by growing pigs is not influenced by dietary AA levels.

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Advantages of Higher Soybean Meal Diets for Pigs

Lee, S. A, and H. H. Stein. 2023. Advantages of Higher Soybean Meal Diets for Pigs. Proc. 22nd Annual Midwest Swine Nutrition Conf. Danville, IN, Sep. 7, 2023. Pages 41-46. Link to the full text.

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Concentrations of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy, Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids, and Digestibility of Phosphorus in a New Variety of Soybeans Fed to Growing Pigs

Cristobal, Minoy A., Carl M. M. Parsons, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Concentrations of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy, Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids, and Digestibility of Phosphorus in a New Variety of Soybeans Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 51 - 52, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.056. Link to abstract.

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Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, C. B. Paulk, H. H. Stein. 2023. Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs. Animal - science proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 857-858. doi: 10.1016/j.anscip.2023.09.041.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids differs among sources of bakery meal when fed to growing pigs

Stein, Hans H., Olayiwola Adeola, Samuel K. Baidoo, Merlin D. Lindemann, Sunday A. Adedokun, and North Central Coordinating Committee on Swine Nutrition. 2023. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids differs among sources of bakery meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101, 1–10. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad208.

Nutritional value of Spanish Camelina sativa co-products for pigs

Cerisuelo, Alba, Pablo Ferrer, Ernesto Angel Gomez, Tofuko Awori Woyengo, Hans Henrik Stein, Mar Martínez, Jose Luís Cano, Olga Piquer. 2023. Nutritional value of Spanish Camelina sativa co-products for pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 301: 115665. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2023.115665. Link to full text.

Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Joaquin Cabañas-Ojeda, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101: 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad124. Link to full text.

Nutritional value of a new source of cheese coproduct fed to weanling pigs

Mallea, Andrea P., Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Diego A. Lopez, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Nutritional value of a new source of cheese coproduct fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science: 101, 1–10. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad107. Link to full text.

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Effects of different corn sources and drying temperature on ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Drying temperatures and corn varieties that inherently differ in kernel hardness, virtuousness, and protein solubility index may influence nutrient digestibility in corn. However, information about interactive effects of corn source (i.e., endosperm hardness) and drying method on nutrient digestibility is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of starch, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) is influenced by corn source and drying temperature.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids is not affected by reducing particle sizes or different origins of field peas fed to growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have been cultivated for centuries for human consumption, due to the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, during the last years, increasing demand for field peas for livestock feeding has developed a market in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. Therefore, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices, and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as the digestibility of nutrients. Besides that, differences in the particle size of field peas may change the digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in field peas is affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Digestibility of amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) have been published for wheat middlings from the U.S. However, it is not known if the data obtained from wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in composition and SID of CP and AA between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Direct fed microbials increase energy and nutrient digestibility

Oliveira, M. S., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Direct fed microbials increase energy and nutrient digestibility. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, Sep. 24, 2022. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) is greater than in soybean meal (SBM).

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Addition of hydrogen chloride to collection bags or containers did not change basal endogenous losses or digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, L. Blavi, D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrogen chloride to collection bags or containers did not change basal endogenous losses or digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 99(Suppl. 1):166-167. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.281. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of starch, crude protein and amino acids in three sources of field peas ground at two different particle sizes fed to growing pigs

Market opportunities for field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have rapidly increased for livestock feed and human food, due of the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as digestibility of nutrients. In addition, it is possible that differences in the particle size of field peas change the digestibility of energy and nutrients as has been reported for other ingredients. However, information about the effects of particle size of peas on digestibility of starch and amino acids (AA) are limited. Additionally, there is limited research to compare the digestibility of AA among field peas produced in different regions of the U.S. and Canada. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein and starch, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in field peas may be affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids is not likely affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

There are several factors related to dietary Ca that may influence digestibility of amino acids (AA). By chelating to dietary phytate, dietary Ca can form non-digestible Ca-phytate complexes, and this may result in reductions of P and AA digestibility. However, adding Ca to diets may increase activation of proteases as co-factors, which could result in increased AA digestibility. In contrast, pH in the digesta may be increased by adding Ca to diets, which likely will have a negative effect on activation of protein digesting enzymes. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating effects of increasing dietary Ca on digestibility of AA in pigs have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of Ca in diets affects apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by pigs.

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Effects of different watering options on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in pig diets supplemented with a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase

The effect of microbial phytase on Ca and P digestibility in diets for pigs and poultry is well established. In poultry, it also appears that the effect of phytase in increasing amino acid (AA) digestibility is consistent, but that is not the case when phytase is added to diets for pigs. However, in many experiments, relatively low levels of phytase was used and it is not known if greater concentrations of phytase will result in a different result. A novel phytase has been recently developed; however, it is also not known if this phytase source can increase digestibility of AA and other nutrients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of the novel phytase in diets for growing pigs increases the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and AA, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and minerals.

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Long-term steam conditioning is needed to maximize the nutritional value of expander-processed soybean expellers

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Joseph R. Limbach, Natalia S. Fanelli, Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Long-term steam conditioning is needed to maximize the nutritional value of expander-processed soybean expellers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 101: 704–714 (2021) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0029. Link to full text.

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