Amino acids

Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids is not affected by reducing particle sizes or different origins of field peas fed to growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have been cultivated for centuries for human consumption, due to the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, during the last years, increasing demand for field peas for livestock feeding has developed a market in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. Therefore, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices, and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as the digestibility of nutrients. Besides that, differences in the particle size of field peas may change the digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in field peas is affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Digestibility of amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) have been published for wheat middlings from the U.S. However, it is not known if the data obtained from wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in composition and SID of CP and AA between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Direct fed microbials increase energy and nutrient digestibility

Oliveira, M. S., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Direct fed microbials increase energy and nutrient digestibility. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, Sep. 24, 2022. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) is greater than in soybean meal (SBM).

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Addition of hydrogen chloride to collection bags or containers did not change basal endogenous losses or digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, L. Blavi, D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrogen chloride to collection bags or containers did not change basal endogenous losses or digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 99(Suppl. 1):166-167. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.281. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of starch, crude protein and amino acids in three sources of field peas ground at two different particle sizes fed to growing pigs

Market opportunities for field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have rapidly increased for livestock feed and human food, due of the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as digestibility of nutrients. In addition, it is possible that differences in the particle size of field peas change the digestibility of energy and nutrients as has been reported for other ingredients. However, information about the effects of particle size of peas on digestibility of starch and amino acids (AA) are limited. Additionally, there is limited research to compare the digestibility of AA among field peas produced in different regions of the U.S. and Canada. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein and starch, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in field peas may be affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids is not likely affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

There are several factors related to dietary Ca that may influence digestibility of amino acids (AA). By chelating to dietary phytate, dietary Ca can form non-digestible Ca-phytate complexes, and this may result in reductions of P and AA digestibility. However, adding Ca to diets may increase activation of proteases as co-factors, which could result in increased AA digestibility. In contrast, pH in the digesta may be increased by adding Ca to diets, which likely will have a negative effect on activation of protein digesting enzymes. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating effects of increasing dietary Ca on digestibility of AA in pigs have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of Ca in diets affects apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by pigs.

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Effects of different watering options on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in pig diets supplemented with a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase

The effect of microbial phytase on Ca and P digestibility in diets for pigs and poultry is well established. In poultry, it also appears that the effect of phytase in increasing amino acid (AA) digestibility is consistent, but that is not the case when phytase is added to diets for pigs. However, in many experiments, relatively low levels of phytase was used and it is not known if greater concentrations of phytase will result in a different result. A novel phytase has been recently developed; however, it is also not known if this phytase source can increase digestibility of AA and other nutrients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of the novel phytase in diets for growing pigs increases the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and AA, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and minerals.

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Long-term steam conditioning is needed to maximize the nutritional value of expander-processed soybean expellers

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Joseph R. Limbach, Natalia S. Fanelli, Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Long-term steam conditioning is needed to maximize the nutritional value of expander-processed soybean expellers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 101: 704–714 (2021) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0029. Link to full text.

Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Laia Blavi, Diego M. D. L. Navarro, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Animal Bioscience Vol. 34, No. 10:1632-1642 October 2021. doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0838.

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Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D., N. S. Fanelli, H. H. Stein. 2021. Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280: 115040. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115040. Link to full text.

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Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No.

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Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal

Espinosa, Charmaine D., M. S. F. Oliveira, J. K. Htoo, H. H. Stein. 2021. Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology 277 (2021) 114948. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.114948. Link to full text.

Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A. S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 86–87. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.140. Link to Abstract.

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A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs

Acosta, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, N. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2021. A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 85–86. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.139. Link to Abstract.

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Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs

Bailey, H. M., H. H. Stein, and J. Campbell. 2021. Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 80–81. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.132. Link to Abstract.

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Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals

Fanelli, Natalia S., Hannah M. Bailey, Lía V. Guardiola, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals. The Journal of Nutrition, first published online, 2021. doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa398.

Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

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