Amino acids

Effects of Fermex 200 (fermented soybean meal) on growth performance and amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most important protein sources in swine diets. However, SBM has high concentrations of non-digestible oligosaccharides, mainly stachyose, raffinose, and verbascose, which may increase diarrhea incidence and reduce nursery growth performance. Fermex 200 (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA) is a new source of fermented SBM that may serve as an alternative to other protein sources in diets fed to pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of Fermex 200 on growth performance and amino acid (AA) digestibility when fed to weanling pigs.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in Fermex 200 are greater than in conventional SBM. The second hypothesis was that Fermex 200 supports growth of weanling pigs as well as other protein sources.

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Amino acid and energy digestibility of an enhanced torula yeast and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Yeast may be used instead of fish meal or other animal protein sources in diets for weanling pigs and there are several yeast proteins available. A newly developed enhanced torula yeast is derived from forestry by-products, and therefore, has a lower carbon-footprint compared with other yeast products. This enhanced torula yeast has an improved amino acid (AA) profile compared with traditional fermentation products, but at this time no data for the nutritional value of enhanced torula yeast fed to weanling pigs have been published. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the AA and energy values of enhanced torula yeast is not different from that of fish meal. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were determined, whereas Exp. 2 was designed to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in both enhanced torula yeast and fish meal.

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Effects of microbial phytase on mucin synthesis, gastric protein hydrolysis, and degradation of phytate along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

Mesina Von G. R., L. Vanessa Lagos, Rommel C. Sulabo, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of microbial phytase on mucin synthesis, gastric protein hydrolysis, and degradation of phytate along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:756–767. Link to full text.

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Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi Laia, Jens N. Jørgensen, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:727–734. Link to full text.

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Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Yue She, J. Chris Sparks, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2804–2816.

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Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs

McGhee Molly L. and Hans. H. Stein. 2018. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:3319–3329.  Link to full text.

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Crystalline amino acids in diets used to determine the standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients fed to pigs do not influence calculated values for amino acid digestibility

Protein and amino acids quality in feed ingredient is most correctly evaluated by determining the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids. Experiments to determine the SID of CP and amino acids in feed ingredients often utilize semi-synthetic diets that contain the test ingredient as the sole source of CP and amino acids. Therefore, the CP and amino acid supply from experimental diets do not always meet the requirement for standardized ileal digestible amino acids by pigs and, therefore, pig growth is often limited in these experiments.

Crystalline amino acids are believed to be rapidly absorbed and 100% digestible. Addition of crystalline amino acids to diets during the adaptation or collection phase is, therefore, believed not to influence values for SID of amino acids in the test feed ingredient, but this has not been experimentally verified. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of crystalline amino acids to diets during the adaptation or collection periods of digestibility studies will not influence calculated values for SID of CP and amino acids in corn and soybean meal. 

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Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro D.M.D.L., J.K. Mathai, N.W. Jaworski, H.H. Stein. 2018. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 98: 860–867. Link to full text

Effects of two direct fed microbials on ileal digestibility of amino acids and total tract digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Direct fed microbials (DFM) are defined as live microorganisms that offer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Bacillus-based DFM are aerobic, spore-forming bacteria that may enhance the host animal’s immune response and improve growth performance in weanling pigs. Bacillus spp. also produce extracellular enzymes that may enhance digestibility and absorption of nutrients.

An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that two DFM containing Bacillus strains (provided by Chr. Hansen A/S, Horsholm, Denmark) improve the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA, CP, and GE, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and GE, and hindgut digestibility of CP and GE when fed to growing pigs.

 

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Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs. Animal 8:1594-1602. Link to full text (.pdf)

Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):668 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Evaluation of the nutritional value of sources of canola meal fed to pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Natural rapeseed contains glucosinolates, which make feed unpalatable, and erucic acid, which is toxic to animals. These anti-nutritional factors are heat-stable, and therefore, cannot be removed by heat-treating rapeseed. Rapeseed, which is low in both glucosinolates and erucic acid, has been produced by hybridization, and is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola and rapeseeds via solvent extraction or mechanically expelling. The solvent extraction process results in production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal and mechanical expelling of oil results in production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers.

The objective of this study was to compare the chemical compositions of canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal from Europe and to compare the composition of 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.  Ten samples of canola meal were collected from crushing plants in North America, and eleven samples of 00-rapeseed meal and five samples of 00-rapeseed expellers were collected from crushing plants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for energy, fat, sugar, starch, fiber, crude protein, amino acids, and minerals.

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Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks

Baker, K. M., P. L. Utterback, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 90:390-395. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effect of dietary carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs

Stewart, L. L., B. G. Kim, B.R. Gramm, R.D. Nimmo, and H.H. Stein. 2010. Effect of dietary carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs. Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 5:168-174. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs

Stewart, L. L., B. G. Kim, B. R. Gramm, R. D. Nimmo, and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effect of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs. J. Anim Sci. 88:1718-1724. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs

Stein, H. H., S. P. Connot, and C. Pedersen. 2009. Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1016-1025. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in liquid and fermented liquid feed

Pedersen, C., and H. H. Stein. 2009. Amino acid digestibility in liquid and fermented liquid feed. Digestive Physiology in Pigs (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by nursery pigs

Stewart, L. L., B. G. Kim, B. R. Gramm, R. D. Nimmo, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effect of carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):107 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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