Digestibility

Metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced if excessive heat is applied during drying of corn

Corn is harvested at a high moisture level, and thus must be dried to less than 15% moisture to ensure safe storage. Improvements to reduce the energy consumption of the dryers have been implemented, especially by increasing the inlet air temperature. However, overheating may have a negative impact on the stability of nutrients, especially amino acids (AA), because Maillard reactions may occur if heat and moisture are applied to feed ingredients. Consequently, Maillard reactions result in a decrease in the concentration and digestibility of AA, and it is possible that energy digestibility is also reduced. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that both the temperature used in drying and the time that heat is applied will affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, and concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in corn fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients. L. I. Chiba, editor, Sustainable Swine Nutrition. 2nd rev. ed. doi:10.1002/9781119583998.ch19. Link to full text.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in a new variety of soybeans fed to growing pigs

More than half of P in soybeans are bound to phytate which causes a low digestibility of P when fed to pigs. However, new varieties that have different characteristics are sometimes developed and an example is the Photoseed variety of soybeans that captures more carbon and sunlight leading to a more nutrient rich ingredient and a reduced footprint from crop production. There is, however, no information about the nutritional value of the soybean meal produced from the Photoseed variety of soybeans. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P is not different in soybean meal produced from Photoseed soybeans compared with control soybean meal when fed to pigs.

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Digestibility of phosphorus in high protein corn co-products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. Phytase is often employed during fermentation in the bioethanol process to improve the efficiency of fermentation. However, the use of phytase during fermentation may impact the nature of phosphorus (P) in any post fermentation products, which could subsequently alter the levels of phytate-bound and non-phytate P. As a consequence, this may influence digestibility and concentration of digestible P in any feed product derived from fermentation. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) produced from a fermentation with or without the use of phytase. It is also the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that inclusion of phytase during the fermentation process increases P digestibility in corn co-products.

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Effects of a mixture of xylanase and glucanase on digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in corn- or sorghum based diets fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., C. D. Espinosa, L. Blavi, M. Mortada, F. N. Almeida, H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of a mixture of xylanase and glucanase on digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in corn- or sorghum based diets fed to growing pigs.

Digestibility of energy in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data have been published for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) have been reported as well. However, it is not known if the data obtained in wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in composition, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), and concentration of DE and ME between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Effect of increasing microbial phytase levels on digestibility of phosphorus in field peas fed to young pigs

The majority of P in most plant feed ingredients is bound to phytate. Pigs, however, do not synthesize adequate endogenous phytate to release the P bound to phytate, which results in low digestibility of P in field peas. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in field peas without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in field peas adding different levels of phytase. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of increasing levels of phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of a Probiotic Bacillus Strain on Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein, Starch, Energy and fat and Total Tract Digestibility of Energy and Dietary Fiber in Diets fed to Weanling Pigs

Oliveira, Maryane. S. F., Guillermo Jimenez, Hans H Stein. 2022. Effects of a Probiotic Bacillus Strain on Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein, Starch, Energy and fat and Total Tract Digestibility of Energy and Dietary Fiber in Diets fed to Weanling Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 3) 118–119. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac247.228.

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Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels

Nelson, Megan E., Su A Lee, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Janet Remus, and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–7. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac280. Link to full text.

Digestibility of amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) have been published for wheat middlings from the U.S. However, it is not known if the data obtained from wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in composition and SID of CP and AA between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of high protein corn fermented products and in Post MSC DDGS.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in three different sources of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Field peas have been produced mainly for human consumption, but lastly, the industry has been included in diets fed to livestock due to its content of starch and protein. In diets for swine, only peas that are harvested at maturity are used. Almost 80% of P in non-oilseed legumes is bound to phytate, and pigs do not synthesize an adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate. Therefore, the digestibility of P in field peas is relatively low. Values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P among different varieties of field peas at different particle sizes. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in the ATTD and the STTD of P among different sources of field peas fed to young pigs and the second hypothesis was that there is a linear increase in the ATTD and STTD of P as the particle size of field peas increases.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) is greater than in soybean meal (SBM).

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Effect of microbial phytase on digestibility of phosphorus in seven sources of sunflower meal fed to growing pigs

The majority of P in oilseed co-products is bound to phytate; however, pigs do not synthesize adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate and the digestibility of P in sunflower meal, therefore is low. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower meal (SFM) without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower co-products produced in different parts of the world. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the ATTD and the STTD of P in different sources of sunflower co-products, and to test the hypothesis that regardless of source, microbial phytase increases the digestibility of P in sunflower co-products fed to young pigs.

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The digestibility of energy and nutrients and the efficiency of phytase to degrade phytate is influenced by pig body weight

Lagos, V., M. Bedford, and H. H. Stein. 2022. The digestibility of energy and nutrients and the efficiency of phytase to degrade phytate is influenced by pig body weight. 15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 174. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn–soybean meal diets without or with full-fat or defatted rice bran

Casas, Gloria A., Maryane S.F. Oliveira, Charmaine D. Espinosa, and H.H. Stein. 2022. Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn–soybean meal diets without or with full-fat or defatted rice bran. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 401–405 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0086.

Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl. 2): 36-37. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.059. Link to Abstr.

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Effect of Increasing Levels of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-Phytase Variant on Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Diets Fed to Young Pigs.

Espinosa, C. D., D. Velayudhan, Y. Dersjant-Li, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Effect of Increasing Levels of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-Phytase Variant on Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Diets Fed to Young Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl.2): 34–35. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.056. Link to Abstr.

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Effects of a probiotic Bacillus strain on ileal digestibility of crude protein, dry matter, starch, energy and fat and total tract digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in diets fed to weanling pigs

Addition of probiotics to swine diets may improve gut health by modifying the microflora, which may help control pathogens, enhance immune response, and increase nutrient digestibility. Once consumed by the pig, probiotics enter the stomach where they are subjected to a low pH and pepsin. The Bacillus strain are metabolically inactive spores that are thermostable and survive at a low pH and, therefore, are thought to survive feed processing and digestion in the stomach. Addition of a Bacillus strain may enhance fermentation of dietary fiber in swine diets and, subsequently, increase the available energy from the diet in the form of volatile fatty acids. Bacillus strain also may degrade non-starch polysaccharides to reducing sugars that may serve as an energy source for the pig. A novel probiotic Bacillus toyonensis M15750 has been developed, but there are limited data to demonstrate the efficacy of this probiotic to increase nutrient digestibility. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that probiotic Bacillus toyonensis M15750 improve the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients when included in diets fed by weanling pigs.

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