Digestibility

The amino acid digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid score for rapeseed protein isolate increases after moderate heating resulting in a protein quality similar to whey protein isolate

Rapeseed is the second most produced oilseed in the world after soybean, and after the oil is extracted, a protein-rich meal is the resulting byproduct containing greater concentrations of sulfur amino acids (AA; i.e., Met and Cys) and Lys compared with legumes and cereal grains. Rapeseed proteins have great potential as a high-quality plant-based protein for humans due to their well-balanced AA profile, high metabolic utilization of protein, a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) similar to soy and milk proteins, and easily separable antinutritional factors. However, to our knowledge, digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has not been determined for rapeseed protein isolate and the level of processing required to concentrate rapeseed into a protein isolate warrants further evaluation of its protein quality. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that heat treatment of rapeseed protein isolate will increase the digestibility of AA by growing pigs and result in a DIAAS that is comparable to soy and animal protein isolates.

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Effects of increasing phytase dose on total tract digestibility of minerals and energy in pigs

In most plant feed ingredients, the majority of P is bound to phytate, which reduces digestibility of P in pigs, and therefore, the concentration of digestible P in these ingredients is relatively low. Phytate is negatively charged in the intestinal tract and can bind both endogenous and dietary nutrients, which results in precipitation of non-digestible nutrient-phytate complexes. Therefore, it is possible that the use of exogenous phytase can also increase the digestibility of other nutrients than P. As an example, addition of exogenous phytase to diets also releases Ca from phytate, and thus, increases the digestibility of Ca. However, it has not been conclusively demonstrated that phytase also increases the digestibility of energy-generating nutrients and other minerals in diets fed to pigs and inconsistent results among experiments have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that increasing phytase dose increases the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals and gross energy (GE) in corn and soybean meal-based diets fed to growing pigs.

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Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, S. A., M. R. Bedford, H. H. Stein. 2021. Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280 (2021) 115084. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115084. Link to full text.

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Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets

Lee, Su A and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets. Pork Magazine, On-line edition, Sep. 9, 2021. Link to full text.

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Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Laia Blavi, Diego M. D. L. Navarro, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Animal Bioscience Vol. 34, No. 10:1632-1642 October 2021. doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0838.

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Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D., N. S. Fanelli, H. H. Stein. 2021. Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280: 115040. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115040. Link to full text.

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Influence of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant on mineral digestibility and bone ash in young growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of phytate-bound phosphorus

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Deepak E. Velayudhan, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Hans H. Stein. 2021. Influence of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant on mineral digestibility and bone ash in young growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of phytate-bound phosphorus. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 8, 1–12. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab211.

Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda-Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Hans H. Stein, and D. Allen Davis. 2021. Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2021;27:1103–1113. doi: 10.1111/anu.13251. Link to full text.

Effect of phytase on weaning piglet performance when fed diets supplemented with pharmacological levels of Zn

Pharmacological levels of Zn (i.e., 2,000 to 3,000 mg/kg) is often included in diets for weanling pigs to prevent post-weaning diarrhea. However, pharmacological levels of Zn may reduce microbial phytase efficacy by chelating the phytate molecule, which subsequently prevents access for phytase.  However, it is possible that this effect can be reduced by adding more phytase to diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of phytase increases pig growth performance and mineral digestibility in diets with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn.

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Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal

Espinosa, Charmaine D., M. S. F. Oliveira, J. K. Htoo, H. H. Stein. 2021. Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology 277 (2021) 114948. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.114948. Link to full text.

Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda-Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Hans H. Stein, D. Allen Davis. 2021. Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2021;00:1–11. DOI: 10.1111/anu.13251. Link to full text.

Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-phytase Variant on Mineral Digestibility and Bone Ash in Young Growing Pigs Fed Diets with Different Concentrations of Phytate

Espinosa, C. D., D. E. Velayudhan, Y. Dersjant-Li, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-phytase Variant on Mineral Digestibility and Bone Ash in Young Growing Pigs Fed Diets with Different Concentrations of Phytate. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 45–46, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.079. Link to Abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a cheese co-product, fish meal, and enzyme treated soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried whey is often used as a source of lactose in diets for weanling pigs. Whey is a co-product from dairy processing plants that is generated after fat and protein in milk has been used to produce cheese. Whey powder is therefore, low in protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, some of the cheese that is produced may not be suitable for human consumption, but can instead be used as a feed ingredient for pigs after being blended with other ingredients to improve flowability and handling.  One of the cheese co-products that is currently being marketed contains 40 to 50% crude protein and has a high digestibility of amino acids. There is, however, limited information about the energy value of cheese co-products fed to pigs although it is expected that because of the high concentration of fat in cheese, the energy value will also be high. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in a cheese co-product is greater than that in fish meal and enzyme treated soybean meal when fed to weanling pigs.

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Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

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Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_1, September 2020, Page 16. doi:10.1002/aocs.12427. Link to the abstract.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial protein concentration and digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fat by growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine, Robert Scott Fry, Matthew Kocher, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial protein concentration and digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fat by growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 83. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs

Lancheros, Paola, Vanessa Lagos, Hans H Stein. 2020. Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 62. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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