Digestibility

Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda-Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Hans H. Stein, and D. Allen Davis. 2021. Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2021;27:1103–1113. doi: 10.1111/anu.13251. Link to full text.

Effect of phytase on weaning piglet performance when fed diets supplemented with pharmacological levels of Zn

Pharmacological levels of Zn (i.e., 2,000 to 3,000 mg/kg) is often included in diets for weanling pigs to prevent post-weaning diarrhea. However, pharmacological levels of Zn may reduce microbial phytase efficacy by chelating the phytate molecule, which subsequently prevents access for phytase.  However, it is possible that this effect can be reduced by adding more phytase to diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of phytase increases pig growth performance and mineral digestibility in diets with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn.

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Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal

Espinosa, Charmaine D., M. S. F. Oliveira, J. K. Htoo, H. H. Stein. 2021. Concentrations of digestible amino acids in co-products from threonine and tryptophan fermentation are greater than in soybean meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology 277 (2021) 114948. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.114948. Link to full text.

Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Galkanda-Arachchige, Harsha S. C., Hans H. Stein, D. Allen Davis. 2021. Soybean meal sourced from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and USA as an ingredient in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2021;00:1–11. DOI: 10.1111/anu.13251. Link to full text.

Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-phytase Variant on Mineral Digestibility and Bone Ash in Young Growing Pigs Fed Diets with Different Concentrations of Phytate

Espinosa, C. D., D. E. Velayudhan, Y. Dersjant-Li, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-phytase Variant on Mineral Digestibility and Bone Ash in Young Growing Pigs Fed Diets with Different Concentrations of Phytate. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 45–46, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.079. Link to Abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a cheese co-product, fish meal, and enzyme treated soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried whey is often used as a source of lactose in diets for weanling pigs. Whey is a co-product from dairy processing plants that is generated after fat and protein in milk has been used to produce cheese. Whey powder is therefore, low in protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, some of the cheese that is produced may not be suitable for human consumption, but can instead be used as a feed ingredient for pigs after being blended with other ingredients to improve flowability and handling.  One of the cheese co-products that is currently being marketed contains 40 to 50% crude protein and has a high digestibility of amino acids. There is, however, limited information about the energy value of cheese co-products fed to pigs although it is expected that because of the high concentration of fat in cheese, the energy value will also be high. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in a cheese co-product is greater than that in fish meal and enzyme treated soybean meal when fed to weanling pigs.

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Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

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Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_1, September 2020, Page 16. doi:10.1002/aocs.12427. Link to the abstract.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial protein concentration and digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fat by growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine, Robert Scott Fry, Matthew Kocher, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial protein concentration and digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fat by growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 83. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs

Lancheros, Paola, Vanessa Lagos, Hans H Stein. 2020. Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 62. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a high protein corn product fed to growing pigs

A new source of corn protein (NexPro) that is produced from the ethanol industry has been developed by Flint Hills Resources (Wichita, KS). NexPro contains approximately 50% crude protein and the digestibility of amino acids was reported in our November, 2020, Newsletter. However, there is at this time no information about the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in this new source of protein. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME in corn protein are greater than in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; i.e., DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) when fed to growing pigs.

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Influence of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant on mineral digestibility and bone ash in young growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of phytate

Microbial phytase is usually included in diets for pigs to increase P absorption and utilization by hydrolyzing phytate within the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. High doses of phytase (i.e., > 1,000 FTU/kg) is also hypothesized to increase release of nutrients other than P due to increased degradation of phytate. A next generation biosynthetic bacterial 6-phytase (PhyG; DuPont Animal Nutrition) may increase digestibility of nutrients in diets for pigs; however, there are no data to demonstrate the efficacy of this phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the negative impact of phytate is reduced at higher phytase doses. It was also the objective of this research to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of phytase increases bone ash and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals in diets containing varying phytate concentrations.

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Digestibility of amino acids in a high protein corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the ethanol industry are often used in diets for pigs. A new source of corn protein (NexPro; Flint Hills Resources, Wichita, KS) has been developed, but at this time there is limited information about the nutritional value of this new source of corn protein. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids  in corn protein is greater than in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; i.e., DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) when fed to growing pigs.

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Conditioning and expansion increase nutritional value of soybean expellers

Soybean expellers contain trypsin inhibitors, which negatively affect nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency, and health status of animals. Therefore, heat treatment is needed to inactivate trypsin inhibitors to improve nutrient digestibility in soybean expellers. Different types and degrees of processing conditions may influence digestibility of energy and amino acids (AA) in soybean expellers, but there is a lack of data demonstrating how long heat treatment is needed if soybean expellers are expander processed after hydrothermical conditioning. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, as well as values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in soybean expellers increase the longer heat is applied to the expellers.

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Short communication: A pilot study to describe duodenal and ileal flows of nutrients and to estimate small intestine endogenous protein losses in weaned calves

Ansia, I., H. H. Stein, C. Brøkner, and J. K. Drackley. 2020. Short communication: A pilot study to describe duodenal and ileal flows of nutrients and to estimate small intestine endogenous protein losses in weaned calves. J. Dairy Sci. 103:9102–9109. doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18281.

Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa297.

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Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs

Archs Toledo, Joan L., Su A Lee, Molly L. McGhee, Gonzalo G. Mateos, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa295. Link to full text.

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