Digestibility

Excessive heat treatment of double-low rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also concentrations of metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Double-low rapeseed meal (RSM) is currently used as a protein ingredient in animal diets. Heat treatment of RSM at varying processing conditions removes the residual hexane and efficiently reduces the glucosinolate content. However, variations in heat processing temperatures and duration of heat treatment may result in Maillard reactions, resulting in the formation of sugar-amino acid complexes. Maillard reaction products result in reduced standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), with Lys being the most sensitive AA. However, there is limited information about how heating affects the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time that heat is applied will affect the concentration of DE and ME and the SID of AA in double-low RSM fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs

Mónica A. Arredondo, Gloria A. Casas, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 27 - 36. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs

D. M. D. L. Navarro, E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 1 - 9. Link to full text.

Keywords: 
Authors: 

Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Yue She, J. Chris Sparks, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2804–2816.

Link to full text.

Authors: 

Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs

Molly L. McGhee and Hans. H. Stein. 2018. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:3319–3329.  Link to full text.

Authors: 

Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro D.M.D.L., J.K. Mathai, N.W. Jaworski, H.H. Stein. 2018. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 98: 860–867. Link to full text

 

Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals

Yanhong Liu, Rajesh Jha, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals. J. Anim. Sci. 2018.96:4685–4692. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum, red sorghum, white sorghum, and yellow dent corn fed to growing pigs

Sorghum is used as an alternative to corn due to its lower cost and wide availability. However, conventional sorghum contains high concentration of tannin and phytate, which act as antinutritional factors. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. High-lysine sorghum is a new variety of sorghum which may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing sorghum and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in sorghum varieties. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high-lysine sorghum is not different from that of corn and other sources of sorghum.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility, and retention of calcium in gestating sows changes during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium by gestating sows

Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca has been determined for most Ca containing ingredients fed to growing pigs, but the basal endogenous loss of Ca is greater and the STTD of Ca in sows in mid-gestation are less than in growing pigs. As a consequence, if diets for gestating sows are formulated using STTD values determined in growing pigs, the provisions of digestible Ca may be less than anticipated.

The efficacy of phytase to release Ca and P is believed to be influenced by the physiological state of pigs with phytase fed to sows in mid-gestation releasing less Ca and P compared with growing pigs or sows in late-gestation. However, it is not known if values for STTD of Ca or retention of Ca and P that are measured in one period of gestation are representative of the entire gestation period.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the STTD of Ca from calcium carbonate and the response to microbial phytase on STTD of Ca and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in corn-based diets fed to gestating sows are constant throughout the gestating period for sows. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that retention of Ca and P does not change during gestation.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Comparative digestibility and retention rate of calcium and phosphorus in low- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Digestibility of Ca and P is most correctly determined as standardized total tract digestibility (STTD). Data for the STTD of P in most feed ingredients have been published, and the STTD of Ca has also been determined in many feed ingredients. However, in practical diet formulation, values for STTD of Ca and P obtained in growing pigs are also applied to sows although there is a lack of comparative data between growing pigs and sows.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that no differences exist between gestating sows and growing pigs for basal endogenous losses, STTD, and retention of Ca and P.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. I. Chemical composition, energy concentration, and digestibility of nutrients

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. I. Chemical composition, energy concentration, and digestibility of nutrients. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):667 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of rate of daily gain on nutrient and energy digestibility in growing-finishing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, D. Petri, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effect of rate of daily gain on nutrient and energy digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):117 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Particle size reductions may help lower feed costs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

December, 2010

It is well known that corn needs to be ground to be effectively utilized by pigs. For many years it has been common practice to recommend grinding to an average particle size between 650 and 700 microns. This particle size was based on research showing that if grain is ground to a smaller particle size, then problems with ulcers in pigs may increase.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of graded levels of phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of graded levels of phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):378 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus. J. Anim Sci. 88:2968-2977. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., G. C. Shurson, and H. H. Stein. 2010. Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2373-2381. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs

Stein, H. H., S. P. Connot, and C. Pedersen. 2009. Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1016-1025. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Effects of dietary concentration of P and microbial phytase on the digestibility of amino acids and energy by growing pigs

Pahm, A. A., G. I. Petersen, N. R. Augspurger, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of dietary concentration of P and microbial phytase on the digestibility of amino acids and energy by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):92 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., G. C. Shurson, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):83 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grain fed to pigs

Kim, B. G., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grain fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):81 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Pages