Digestibility

Effects of Fermex 200 (fermented soybean meal) on growth performance and amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most important protein sources in swine diets. However, SBM has high concentrations of non-digestible oligosaccharides, mainly stachyose, raffinose, and verbascose, which may increase diarrhea incidence and reduce nursery growth performance. Fermex 200 (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA) is a new source of fermented SBM that may serve as an alternative to other protein sources in diets fed to pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of Fermex 200 on growth performance and amino acid (AA) digestibility when fed to weanling pigs.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in Fermex 200 are greater than in conventional SBM. The second hypothesis was that Fermex 200 supports growth of weanling pigs as well as other protein sources.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of phosphorus in enhanced torula yeast and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

An enhanced torula yeast was recently developed as a natural alternative protein source to fish meal and other animal proteins. This ingredient has a lower carbon footprint than other available yeast proteins because it is derived from forestry by-products. The enhanced torula yeast has an improved amino acid (AA) profile, a greater digestibility of AA than fish meal, and an energy value that is not different from that in fish meal. However, there are no data available about the digestibility values of P in this new ingredient. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in enhanced torula yeast are not different from those in fish meal.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial protein concentration and digestibility of energy, crude protein, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract by growing pigs

The requirement for Cu for normal metabolism by weanling pigs is 5 to 6 mg/kg, but it is common practice to include additional Cu in diets for pigs to enhance growth performance. Several modes of action for the improved growth performance have been proposed, and one proposed mode of action is the ability of Cu to alter microbial activity. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) is improved if Cu hydroxychloride is supplemented to high fiber diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 150 mg/kg of Cu from Cu hydroxychloride (IntelliBond CII; Micronutrients USA LLC; Indianapolis, IN) to diets fed to growing pigs improves apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and ATTD of AEE, and the AID of crude protein. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that supplementing diets with Cu hydroxychloride can reduce the concentration of microbial protein in the small intestine or in the large intestine by pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet based on corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility, retention of Ca and P changes during gestation

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Digestibility, retention of Ca and P changes during gestation. National Hog Farmer. January 31, 2019. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Zinc oxide and microbial phytase may reduce calcium and phosphorus digestibility

Blavi, L., and H. H. Stein. 2017. Zinc oxide and microbial phytase may reduce calcium and phosphorus digestibility. National Hog Farmer, Online edition, March 30, 2017. Link to full text.

Keywords: 
Authors: 

Sows in mid-gestation have reduced digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing pigs

Lee, S., C. Walk, and H. Stein. 2018. Sows in mid-gestation have reduced digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S193-194. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Protein and amino acid digestibility of Camelina sativa co-products for growing pigs

Cerisuelo, A., P. Ferrer, E. Gómez, H. Stein, T. Woyengo, J. Cano, and O. Piquer. 2018. Protein and amino acid digestibility of Camelina sativa co-products for growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S148-149. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

Publication Type: 

Effects of two direct fed microbials on digestibility of amino acids and energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi, L., J. Jørgensen, and H. Stein. 2018. Effects of two direct fed microbials on digestibility of amino acids and energy in diets fed to growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S147. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

Publication Type: 

Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium carbonate, and retention of calcium in gestating sows change during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium

Lee Su A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium carbonate, and retention of calcium in gestating sows change during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:1712–1721. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Amino acid and energy digestibility of an enhanced torula yeast and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Yeast may be used instead of fish meal or other animal protein sources in diets for weanling pigs and there are several yeast proteins available. A newly developed enhanced torula yeast is derived from forestry by-products, and therefore, has a lower carbon-footprint compared with other yeast products. This enhanced torula yeast has an improved amino acid (AA) profile compared with traditional fermentation products, but at this time no data for the nutritional value of enhanced torula yeast fed to weanling pigs have been published. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the AA and energy values of enhanced torula yeast is not different from that of fish meal. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were determined, whereas Exp. 2 was designed to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in both enhanced torula yeast and fish meal.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus in swine diets

Lee, S. A., L. V. Lagos, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus in swine diets. In Proc. London Swine Conference, London, ON, Canada. March 26-27, 2019. Pages 63-72. Link full text(.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi Laia, Jens N. Jørgensen, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:727–734. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Excessive heat treatment of double-low rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also concentrations of metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Double-low rapeseed meal (RSM) is currently used as a protein ingredient in animal diets. Heat treatment of RSM at varying processing conditions removes the residual hexane and efficiently reduces the glucosinolate content. However, variations in heat processing temperatures and duration of heat treatment may result in Maillard reactions, resulting in the formation of sugar-amino acid complexes. Maillard reaction products result in reduced standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), with Lys being the most sensitive AA. However, there is limited information about how heating affects the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time that heat is applied will affect the concentration of DE and ME and the SID of AA in double-low RSM fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs

Arredondo Mónica A., Gloria A. Casas, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 27 - 36. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs

Navarro D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 1 - 9. Link to full text.

Keywords: 
Authors: 

Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Yue She, J. Chris Sparks, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2804–2816.

Link to full text.

Authors: 

Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs

McGhee Molly L. and Hans. H. Stein. 2018. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:3319–3329.  Link to full text.

Authors: 

Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro D.M.D.L., J.K. Mathai, N.W. Jaworski, H.H. Stein. 2018. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 98: 860–867. Link to full text

Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals

Yanhong Liu, Rajesh Jha, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals. J. Anim. Sci. 2018.96:4685–4692. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum, red sorghum, white sorghum, and yellow dent corn fed to growing pigs

Sorghum is used as an alternative to corn due to its lower cost and wide availability. However, conventional sorghum contains high concentration of tannin and phytate, which act as antinutritional factors. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. High-lysine sorghum is a new variety of sorghum which may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing sorghum and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in sorghum varieties. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high-lysine sorghum is not different from that of corn and other sources of sorghum.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Pages