Pigs

Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 3, 1–11. doi:10.1093/jas/skab057.

Authors: 

Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Effect of reducing the concentration of limestone and monocalcium phosphate in diets without or with microbial phytase on gastric pH, fecal score, growth performance, and bone ash of weanling pigs

Weanling pigs have reduced secretion of HCl in the stomach needed for appropriate protein digestion. Therefore, acidifiers are sometimes used in weaning diets as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters because these products may create a favorable environment in the stomach for proper pepsin activity. However, the presence of limestone and monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in phase 1 diets, which have a high buffer capacity, may contribute to the inability for pigs to secrete enough HCl in the stomach, and lowering the inclusion level of these ingredients in starter diets may be beneficial to young pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that reducing the amount of limestone and MCP in diets for weanling pigs, by lowering the concentration of dietary Ca and P and(or) by including microbial phytase in the diet, will reduce stomach pH and fecal score and therefore improve growth performance of pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of sample preparation method and drying method on the concentration of energy in urine and the concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to pigs

To obtain accurate values for metabolizable energy (ME) in diets and ingredients, an accurate estimation of gross energy (GE) in urine is required. Urine samples are often prepared following the freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag method and GE is determined by the ignition of the sample in a bomb calorimeter. However, the concentration of GE in urine can also be determined by dripping urine on a cellulose pellet, which can then be ignited in a bomb calorimeter. Alternatively, energy in urine can be calculated from the concentration of N in urine assuming that all energy in urine originates from N. The latter 2 methods may be less expensive and less time consuming than using the freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag method. Likewise, oven drying instead of freeze drying of samples may reduce time and cost of the drying procedure. However, to our knowledge, no data comparing values for GE in urine and ME in diets among different sample preparation and drying methods are available. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in GE of urine or ME values of diets among sample preparation methods (freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag, undried cellulose pellet, or N value method). The second hypothesis was that drying method (freeze drying or oven drying) of cotton-plastic bag urine samples from pigs do not influence analyzed the GE in urine or calculated ME in diets.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility and metabolism of copper in diets for pigs and influence of dietary copper on growth performance, intestinal health, and overall immune status: a review

Espinosa, Charmaine D., and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Digestibility and metabolism of copper in diets for pigs and influence of dietary copper on growth performance, intestinal health, and overall immune status: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 12: 13. doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00533-3. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Copper hydroxychloride improves gain to feed ratio in pigs, but this is not due to improved true total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract

Espinosa C. D., R. S. Fry, J. L. Usry, H. H. Stein. 2021. Copper hydroxychloride improves gain to feed ratio in pigs, but this is not due to improved true total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract. Animal Feed Science and Technology 274: 114839. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.114839  Link to full text.

Authors: 

Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets

Ren, Ping, Laia Blavi, Caroline González-Vega, Yanhong Liu, Deana Hancock, Mercedes Vazquez-Añón, Ferdinando N. Almeida, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci.

Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Xixi Chen, Yan Lei, Jirong Lv, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_4, November 2020, Pages 108. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

Publication Type: 

Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine, Robert Scott Fry, Matthew Kocher, Hans H Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 106. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

Publication Type: 

Digestibility of energy and nutrients and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean expellers and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, D., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of energy and nutrients and concentration of metabolizable energy in soybean expellers and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 64. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs

Lancheros, Paola, Vanessa Lagos, Hans H Stein. 2020. Enhanced torula yeast has increased nutritional value compared to fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 62. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of dietary isoleucine and valine supplementation to excess or low leucine diets on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chained amino acids in growing pigs

Kwon, Woong B., Jose A. Soto, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of dietary isoleucine and valine supplementation to excess or low leucine diets on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chained amino acids in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 33. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a high protein corn product fed to growing pigs

A new source of corn protein (NexPro) that is produced from the ethanol industry has been developed by Flint Hills Resources (Wichita, KS). NexPro contains approximately 50% crude protein and the digestibility of amino acids was reported in our November, 2020, Newsletter. However, there is at this time no information about the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in this new source of protein. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME in corn protein are greater than in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; i.e., DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) when fed to growing pigs.

Publication Type: 

Influence of a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant on mineral digestibility and bone ash in young growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of phytate

Microbial phytase is usually included in diets for pigs to increase P absorption and utilization by hydrolyzing phytate within the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. High doses of phytase (i.e., > 1,000 FTU/kg) is also hypothesized to increase release of nutrients other than P due to increased degradation of phytate. A next generation biosynthetic bacterial 6-phytase (PhyG; DuPont Animal Nutrition) may increase digestibility of nutrients in diets for pigs; however, there are no data to demonstrate the efficacy of this phytase. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the negative impact of phytate is reduced at higher phytase doses. It was also the objective of this research to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of phytase increases bone ash and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals in diets containing varying phytate concentrations.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Nutritional value of a new source of fermented soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D. , Maryane S. F. Oliveira, L. Vanessa Lagos, Terry L. Weeden, Aileen J. Mercado, and Hans H. Stein. 2000. Nutritional value of a new source of fermented soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 12, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa357. Link to full text.

Effects on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chain amino acids by growing pigs of supplementing isoleucine and valine to diets with adequate or excess concentrations of dietary leucine

Kwon, Woong B., Jose A. Soto, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chain amino acids by growing pigs of supplementing isoleucine and valine to diets with adequate or excess concentrations of dietary leucine. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 11, 1–10. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa346.

Authors: 

Espinosa, C. D., J. P. Acosta, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Growth performance not sacrificed with corn protein. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, October, 2020.

Espinosa, C. D., J. P. Acosta, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Growth performance not sacrificed with corn protein. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, October, 2020. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Pages