Pigs

Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–8.

doi:10.1093/jas/skaa215. Link to full text.

Authors: 

The apparent ileal digestibility and the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates and energy in hybrid rye are different from some other cereal grains when fed to growing pigs

McGhee, Molly L., and Hans. H. Stein. 2020. The apparent ileal digestibility and the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates and energy in hybrid rye are different from some other cereal grains when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–10. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa218. Link to full time.

Authors: 

Digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal sourced from different countries and fed to pigs

Lopez, Diego A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal sourced from different countries and fed to pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268: 114600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114600.

Authors: 

Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on the calcium and phosphorus balance of growing pigs

Several experiments were conducted to estimate Ca digestibility in different feed ingredients in the presence or absence of microbial phytase to allow formulation of diets for pigs to be based on standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca instead of total Ca. Thus, 4 experiments aimed at determining Ca requirements expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P in pigs from 11 to 130 kg. A follow-up study was later conducted to validate those data and to evaluate the effect of using ratios that maximize growth performance on bone development because maximum bone ash requires more Ca than maximum growth performance. However, data indicate that STTD Ca to STTD P ratios to maximize Ca retention are greater than to maximize bone ash synthesis. The use of STTD Ca to STTD P ratios in diet formulation may result in a reduction in excess dietary Ca, which is beneficial because excess dietary Ca is detrimental to P digestibility and growth performance of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that formulating diets for growing pigs based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P instead of total Ca and STTD P does not decrease Ca retention, but increases P utilization.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Pigs prefer diets containing corn to diets containing hybrid rye when given the choice, but growth performance is not reduced when hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

In many parts of the world, including the United States, corn is the primary energy source used in diets for pigs, but there are no published data comparing the growth performance of growing pigs fed diets in which hybrid rye replaces corn. Unfamiliarity with hybrid rye also makes some producers in the United States reluctant to try feeding hybrid rye to pigs, as there is a long-standing belief that rye is less palatable than other feed ingredients. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that there is no difference in feed preference for diets containing either hybrid rye or corn as the exclusive cereal grain source, and that hybrid rye may replace a portion of corn in diets for growing pigs without adversely affecting growth. 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, Carly M., Valeria Artuso-Ponte, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2020.4:1-7. doi: 10.1093/tas/txaa054. Link to full text. 

Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on growth performance, bone ash, plasma Ca and P, and carcass characteristics of pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Calcium requirements by pigs are expressed as total Ca because of a lack of data for the digestibility of Ca in feed ingredients, but it is believed that a ratio between standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P is a more appropriate way to express requirements for Ca by pigs. Values for Ca digestibility in different Ca-containing feed ingredients were recently generated using diets without or with microbial phytase, which allowed for the formulation of diets based on STTD Ca values. A number of experiments were also conducted to determine STTD Ca to STTD P requirements to optimize growth performance and bone mineralization of pigs from 11 to 25 kg, 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg. However, these experiments were performed independently and in experiments lasting only 3 to 5 weeks. Therefore, a follow-up experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the requirement for Ca expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P obtained in short-term experiments may be applied to pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase from 11 to 130 kg.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of replacing corn with bakery meal in diets for weanling pigs

Bakery meal consist of unsalable bread, breakfast cereals, cookies, pasta, and other foods that are no longer intended for human consumption. Bakery meal converts losses from the food industry into ingredients for the animal feed industry, thereby preventing food losses in the food chain. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most bakery products, and this results in bakery meal containing high concentration of starch. Therefore, bakery meal is a potential sustainable feed ingredient that can be used in animal diets without competing with the food industry. However, research demonstrating the effect of bakery meal on growth performance for weanling pigs is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that replacing corn with bakery meal will not influence growth performance of pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Hybrid rye instead of corn does not impede pig growth

McGhee, M. L., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Hybrid rye instead of corn does not impede pig growth. National Hog Farmer, Online edition, April 30, 2020. Link to full text. 

Authors: 

Is the Phosphorus in Rye More Digestible?

Archs Toledo, J. L., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Is the phosphorus in rye more digestible? Pork Magazine, April 8, 2020. Link to full text.

Keywords: 
Authors: 

At least 3 days of adaptation are required before indigestible markers (chromium, titanium, and acid insoluble ash) are stabilized in the ileal digesta of 60-kg pigs, but values for amino acid digestibility are affected by the marker

Kim, Beob G., Su A Lee, Kyu R. Park, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. At least 3 days of adaptation are required before indigestible markers (chromium, titanium, and acid insoluble ash) are stabilized in the ileal digesta of 60-kg pigs, but values for amino acid digestibility are affected by the marker. Journal of Animal Science, 2020,  Vol. 98: No.

Authors: 

Effects of dietary isoleucine and valine supplementation to excess or low leucine diets on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in growing pigs

Leucine is a key regulator that stimulates catabolism of branched-chain AA (BCAA; i.e., Leu, Ile, and Val) in skeletal muscle and liver. If diets fed to pigs contain excess Leu, catabolism of all 3 BCAA may increase because of the stimulating effect of the Leu metabolite, α-keto isocaproate, on the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, which is responsible for degradation of the 3 branched-chain α-keto acids that originate from metabolism of the 3 BCAA. Serum Ile and Val concentrations were reduced by excess dietary Leu in growing pigs, and high dietary Leu reduces feed intake and growth performance in pigs, which may be a result of the imbalanced supply of BCAA that result from increased metabolism of Val and Ile. Recent data confirmed that excess dietary Leu reduced growth performance and tended to reduce protein synthesis, which is likely a result of reduced availability of Val and Ile.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs

At weaning, pigs have to cope with abrupt withdrawal of sow milk, and this often causes appetite suppression due to marked changes in diet form and composition. Feed flavor and sweetener are believed to increase feed palatability, and subsequently improve feed intake, average daily gain, and immune response of weanling pigs. However, data that confirm this hypothesis are limited. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that supplementation of feed flavor and feed sweetener in diets fed to weanling pigs improve growth performance.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of NexPro (high-protein corn) on growth performance of weanling pigs

NexPro is a high protein feed ingredient that is generated via downstream processing of co-products from the dry-grind ethanol industry. Results from digestibility experiments indicate that NexPro contribute considerable quantities of amino acids and energy to diets fed to pigs, but there are no data demonstrating effects on growth performance of including NexPro in diets for weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that NexPro may replace other high-value protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without impacting pig growth performance.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, M. E. Kocher, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114447. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Tryptophan can partially overcome negative effects of leucine in pig diets

Kwon, W. B., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Tryptophan can partially overcome negative effects of leucine in pig diets. National Hog Farmer, Online edition. Jan.

Keywords: 
Authors: 

Effect of increasing levels of Sylpro yeast on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Sylpro enhanced torula yeast is a high protein feed ingredient derived from forestry by-products, and results from digestibility experiments indicate that Sylpro yeast may be a valuable source of energy and digestible amino acids in diets fed to weanling pigs. As a consequence, it is believed that Sylpro yeast may be included in diets for weanling pigs at the expense of fish meal and other animal protein sources. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing levels of Sylpro yeast improve growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., R. Scott Fry, Matthew E. Kocher, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz369. Link to full text. 

Inclusion of the direct-fed microbial Clostridium butyricum in diets for weanling pigs increases growth performance and tends to increase villus height and crypt depth, but does not change intestinal microbial abundance

Casas, Gloria A., Laia Blavi, Tzu-Wen L. Cross, Anne H. Lee, Kelly S. Swanson, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Inclusion of the direct-fed microbial Clostridium butyricum in diets for weanling pigs increases growth performance and tends to increase villus height and crypt depth, but does not change intestinal microbial abundance. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–12. doi:10.1093/jas/skz372.

Authors: 

Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Lagos, Vanessa L., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1-9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz375. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Pages