Canola meal

Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in two sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in two sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):220 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe. J. Anim. Sci. 92:3502-3514. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestible phosphorus in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers without and with microbial phytase fed to nursery pigs

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible phosphorus in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers without and with microbial phytase fed to nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):141 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in processed soybean products, rapeseed expellers, and a fermented mixture of co-products fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. It is possible that fermentation can make 00-rapeseed meals and 00-rapeseed expellers suitable for feeding to weanling pigs, but no research has been conducted to confirm this hypothesis. An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by weanling pigs of crude protein and amino acids in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

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Performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs fed diets containing high protein or conventional canola meal

Canola meal can be used as a source of protein in swine diets, but conventional canola meal contains less protein than soybean meal. In recent years, new varieties of canola have been developed with seeds that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola seeds. The meal from these new varieties of canola has a protein content similar to that of soybean meal.

Previous research at the University of Illinois demonstrated that diets containing at least 30% high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV) could be fed to nursery pigs without reducing growth performance. It has not yet been determined how much soybean meal can be replaced by conventional or high protein canola meal in diets for growing-finishing pigs without affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics. Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the optimum inclusion rate of high-protein and conventional meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs.

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Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 187:44-52. Link to full text (.pdf)

Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Rodríguez, D. A., R. C. Sulabo, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 93:493-503. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of including conventional or high protein canola meals in diets for nursery pigs

Canola meal is a by-product of the canola oil industry. Conventional canola meal contains about 37% crude protein, and is a good protein source for swine diets. New varieties of canola with seeds that contain less fiber and more protein than conventional canola seeds have been hybridized. The meals produced from these new hybrids have a crude protein content similar to that of dehulled soybean meal (Table 1). No data exist on how feeding these high protein canola meals to weanling pigs affects growth performance. Inclusion levels also have not been established for the use of these products in nursery diets.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect on growth performance of including conventional or high protein canola meals at different levels in diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):676 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Effects of heat treatment on the composition and amino acid digestibility of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is the second most used plant protein source, after soybean meal, in livestock diets. The production of canola meal involves a step in which the meal is treated with steam for 35 to 50 minutes at temperatures from 95 to 115°C. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine is particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction, so it is important to determine accurate digestible lysine levels in feedstuffs that may be heat damaged. Amino acid analysis that does not account for lysine recovered from acid hydrolysis of Maillard products may overestimate the amount of digestible lysine in a sample. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Another objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in canola meal.

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Rodríguez, D. A., R. C. Sulabo, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):116-117 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition and on the amino acid digestibility of canola meal, sunflower meal, and cottonseed meal fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of heat damage on the nutritional composition and on the amino acid digestibility of canola meal, sunflower meal, and cottonseed meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):27 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):27 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to finishing pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4391:4400. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Rapeseed which has been hybridized to be low in both unpalatable glucosinolates and toxic erucic acid is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola or 00-rapeseeds in two ways. Solvent extraction results in the production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal, while mechanical expelling results in the production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers. The meals and expellers have high concentrations of crude protein and amino acids, and can be used as protein sources in swine diets. An experiment was conductedto compare crude protein and amino digestibility between North American canola meal and European 00-rapeseed meal, and between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.

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Phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable amino acids to the animals.
The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

Oilseeds and oilseed meals also provide phosphorus to the diet. However, most of the phosphorus in these sources is bound to phytate, and is not available to pigs. An experiment was performed to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products, and to discover how the addition of phytase influences the STTD of phosphorus. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium and the effect of adding phytase on ATTD of calcium were also measured.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in 4 sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.

It has been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure.

There is no information about the digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal. There also is no data comparing the digestibility of energy in canola meal processed at low temperatures versus high temperatures. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high protein, high-temperature-processed, low-temperature-processed, and commercial canola meals, and to compare these values with the DE and ME in corn and soybean meal.

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Chemical composition of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Chemical composition of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):309-310 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable AA to the animals.

The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

There are no recent data on energy digestibility in canola, cotton, and sunflower products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in canola seeds (CS), canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seeds (SFS), sunflower meal (SFM), and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM-DH), and to compare these values to the DE and ME in soybean meal (SBM).

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Amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. The oil is extracted for use in cooking and agriculture, leaving a high-protein meal that can be used in livestock feeding. Although the concentration of protein and amino acids and the amino acid profile of canola meal is less desirable than that of soybean meal, its relatively low cost may make it an attractive option for producers. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.  However, there is no information about the digestibility of amino acid in high protein canola meal when fed to pigs.

It has also been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure. There are, however, no comparative data between meals produced using the traditional high temperature procedure and meals produced using the low-temperature procedure.

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