Growth performance

Espinosa, C. D., J. P. Acosta, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Growth performance not sacrificed with corn protein. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, October, 2020.

Espinosa, C. D., J. P. Acosta, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Growth performance not sacrificed with corn protein. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, October, 2020. Link to full text.

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Effect of torula yeast on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and blood characteristics in weanling pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., L. Vanessa Lagos, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effect of torula yeast on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa307. Link to full text.
 

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Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review

Lancheros, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268 (2020) 114603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114603.

Pigs prefer diets containing corn to diets containing hybrid rye when given the choice, but growth performance is not reduced when hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

In many parts of the world, including the United States, corn is the primary energy source used in diets for pigs, but there are no published data comparing the growth performance of growing pigs fed diets in which hybrid rye replaces corn. Unfamiliarity with hybrid rye also makes some producers in the United States reluctant to try feeding hybrid rye to pigs, as there is a long-standing belief that rye is less palatable than other feed ingredients. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that there is no difference in feed preference for diets containing either hybrid rye or corn as the exclusive cereal grain source, and that hybrid rye may replace a portion of corn in diets for growing pigs without adversely affecting growth. 

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Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on growth performance, bone ash, plasma Ca and P, and carcass characteristics of pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Calcium requirements by pigs are expressed as total Ca because of a lack of data for the digestibility of Ca in feed ingredients, but it is believed that a ratio between standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P is a more appropriate way to express requirements for Ca by pigs. Values for Ca digestibility in different Ca-containing feed ingredients were recently generated using diets without or with microbial phytase, which allowed for the formulation of diets based on STTD Ca values. A number of experiments were also conducted to determine STTD Ca to STTD P requirements to optimize growth performance and bone mineralization of pigs from 11 to 25 kg, 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg. However, these experiments were performed independently and in experiments lasting only 3 to 5 weeks. Therefore, a follow-up experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the requirement for Ca expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P obtained in short-term experiments may be applied to pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase from 11 to 130 kg.

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Effect of replacing corn with bakery meal in diets for weanling pigs

Bakery meal consist of unsalable bread, breakfast cereals, cookies, pasta, and other foods that are no longer intended for human consumption. Bakery meal converts losses from the food industry into ingredients for the animal feed industry, thereby preventing food losses in the food chain. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most bakery products, and this results in bakery meal containing high concentration of starch. Therefore, bakery meal is a potential sustainable feed ingredient that can be used in animal diets without competing with the food industry. However, research demonstrating the effect of bakery meal on growth performance for weanling pigs is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that replacing corn with bakery meal will not influence growth performance of pigs.

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Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs

At weaning, pigs have to cope with abrupt withdrawal of sow milk, and this often causes appetite suppression due to marked changes in diet form and composition. Feed flavor and sweetener are believed to increase feed palatability, and subsequently improve feed intake, average daily gain, and immune response of weanling pigs. However, data that confirm this hypothesis are limited. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that supplementation of feed flavor and feed sweetener in diets fed to weanling pigs improve growth performance.

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Effect of NexPro (high-protein corn) on growth performance of weanling pigs

NexPro is a high protein feed ingredient that is generated via downstream processing of co-products from the dry-grind ethanol industry. Results from digestibility experiments indicate that NexPro contribute considerable quantities of amino acids and energy to diets fed to pigs, but there are no data demonstrating effects on growth performance of including NexPro in diets for weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that NexPro may replace other high-value protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without impacting pig growth performance.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, M. E. Kocher, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114447. Link to full text.

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Effect of increasing levels of Sylpro yeast on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Sylpro enhanced torula yeast is a high protein feed ingredient derived from forestry by-products, and results from digestibility experiments indicate that Sylpro yeast may be a valuable source of energy and digestible amino acids in diets fed to weanling pigs. As a consequence, it is believed that Sylpro yeast may be included in diets for weanling pigs at the expense of fish meal and other animal protein sources. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing levels of Sylpro yeast improve growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

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Inclusion of the direct-fed microbial Clostridium butyricum in diets for weanling pigs increases growth performance and tends to increase villus height and crypt depth, but does not change intestinal microbial abundance

Casas, Gloria A., Laia Blavi, Tzu-Wen L. Cross, Anne H. Lee, Kelly S. Swanson, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Inclusion of the direct-fed microbial Clostridium butyricum in diets for weanling pigs increases growth performance and tends to increase villus height and crypt depth, but does not change intestinal microbial abundance. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–12. doi:10.1093/jas/skz372.

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Effects of inclusion of hybrid rye in diets on growth performance and diarrhea incidence of weanling pigs

Production of hybrid rye in North America is increasing after being introduced to Canada and the United States in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Compared with corn, hybrid rye contains similar amounts of standardized ileal digestible amino acids, a greater concentration of standardized total tract digestible P, and approximately 94% of the metabolizable energy. Hybrid rye contains more fermentable dietary fiber than corn, which has the potential to improve gut health, but its reduced digestibility of amino acids may simultaneously have a negative impact on the health of the large intestine. Two experiments were conducted to determine the maximum amount of hybrid rye that can be included in diets for weanling pigs without influencing growth performance or diarrhea incidence.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and choice white grease on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs kept at normal ambient temperature or under heat stress

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, J. Usry, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and choice white grease on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs kept at normal ambient temperature or under heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.256:114257. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.114257. Link to full text.

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Bioavailability of valine in spray-dried L-valine biomass is not different from that in crystalline L-valine when fed to weanling pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., John K. Htoo, J. Caroline González-Vega, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Bioavailability of valine in spray-dried L-valine biomass is not different from that in crystalline L-valine when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2019, 4227–4234. Link to full text.

Effects of dietary leucine and tryptophan supplementation on serotonin metabolism and growth performance of growing pigs

Tryptophan is an indispensable AA that is often limiting for growth in pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets. Tryptophan may act as a regulator of feed intake by enhancing serotonin signaling in the brain, because Trp is a precursor for serotonin. High Trp intake increases feed intake, and this is partly attributed to increased serotonin synthesis. Availability of dietary Trp in the brain is considered the rate-limiting step in hypothalamic serotonin synthesis. However, to be transported into the brain, Trp competes with other large neutral AA such as Val, Leu, Ile, Tyr, and Phe for a common transporter (L-type AA transporter 1) to cross the blood-brain barrier.

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Effects of graded levels of phytase on digestibility of nutrients, growth performance, and bone ash in corn and soybean meal based diets fed to pigs

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of graded levels of phytase on digestibility of nutrients, growth performance, and bone ash in corn and soybean meal based diets fed to pigs. In: 80th Minnesota Nutrition Conference, Mankato, MN, Sep. 18-19, 2019. P. 25. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs

Most diets for weanling pigs contain highly digestible plant and animal proteins, but there is an increasing trend to include more fibrous co-products in diets for pigs due to reduced diet costs. However, feeding diets to nursery pigs with high concentration of dietary fiber may reduce nutrient digestibility, induce intestinal inflammation, and subsequently depress growth performance. Addition of 100 to 200 mg/kg of Cu from Cu hydroxychloride (IntelliBond CII; Micronutrients USA LLC; Indianapolis, IN) to diets improves feed efficiency and reduces post weaning diarrhea in pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the effect of Cu hydroxychloride on intestinal barrier integrity of pigs fed low-fiber or high-fiber diets, and it is not known if Cu hydroxychloride influences immune responses of pigs. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 150 mg/kg of Cu from Cu hydroxychloride reduces intestinal permeability and subsequently improves growth performance of pigs fed diets without or with high concentration of dietary fiber.

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Effects of dietary leucine and tryptophan supplementations on serotonin metabolism and growth performance of growing pigs.

Kwon, W. B., K. J. Touchette, A. Simongiovanni, K. Syriopoulos, A. Wessels, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of dietary leucine and tryptophan supplementations on serotonin metabolism and growth performance of growing pigs. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 303-304.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs

Supplementing Cu to diets fed to pigs at 100 to 250 mg/kg may reduce post-weaning scouring and also improve ADG and ADFI. Addition of Cu at 250 mg/kg in diets for pigs containing 5% animal fat improved growth performance, and it was speculated that this is due to the ability of Cu to improve animal fat utilization and enzymatic activity. Inclusion of 45 mg/kg of dietary Cu in diets for rabbits improved body mass gain by upregulating mRNA transcription of fatty acid transport protein, fatty acid binding protein, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, indicating that dietary Cu may influence post-absorptive metabolism of lipids. However, the effect of supplementing dietary Cu on post-absorptive lipid metabolism in pigs remains inconclusive. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of 150 mg/kg Cu from Cu hydroxychloride (IntelliBond CII; Micronutrients USA LLC; Indianapolis, IN) to a diet based on corn, soybean meal (SBM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) improves growth performance of pigs, and that dietary Cu influences mRNA abundance of genes involved in post-absorptive metabolism of lipids in pigs.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and increasing concentrations of dietary fat on growth performance, total tract endogenous loss of fat, and apparent total tract digestibility of fat by growing pigs

Charmaine D. Espinosa, Robert Scott Fry, Matthew Kocher, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and increasing concentrations of dietary fat on growth performance, total tract endogenous loss of fat, and apparent total tract digestibility of fat by growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_2, July 2019, Page 68. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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