Weanling pigs

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets for pigs. Different technologies are used to develop high protein corn co-products, but in addition to providing amino acids to the diets, high protein corn co-products also provide energy to the diets. The energy concentrations in corn protein may depend on the concentrations of fat, carbohydrates, and protein in sources of corn protein. Newly developed corn proteins contain 40 to 50% crude protein. There are, however, limited data on how differences in the chemical composition of different sources of corn protein influence the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) when fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentrations of DE and ME among 3 sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets with different inclusion levels of a cheese co-product

Whey, which is a co-product from dairy processing plants that extract fat and protein from milk to make cheese, has been used in diets fed to weanling pigs as a source of lactose. Whey powder does not contain much protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, cheese co-products, which contain 40 to 50% crude protein may be used in the feeding of pigs, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of cheese co-products fed to pigs. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that a cheese co-product may replace traditional protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without affecting growth performance.

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Effects of reducing the concentration of Ca and P and increasing microbial phytase on gastric pH, fecal score, plasma inositol, growth performance, and bone ash of weanling pigs

The limited capacity for weanling pigs to secret HCl in the stomach may be exacerbated by inclusion of ingredients with high acid binding capacity such as limestone and monocalcium phosphate. As a consequence, reducing the amount of these 2 ingredients in diets for weanling pigs may contribute to a stable low pH for proper pepsin activity and increased action of microbial phytase. Inclusion of high doses of phytase that results in increased phytate degradation and increased release of Ca, P, and inositol may also be beneficial to newly weaned pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that lowering dietary Ca and P reduces gastric pH and diarrhea of weanling pigs, but microbial phytase may overcome negative effects of low Ca and P on growth performance and bone ash.

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A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs

Acosta, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, N. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2021. A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 85–86. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.139. Link to Abstract.

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Buttiauxella Phytase Improves Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Corn, Soybean Meal, and Canola Meal Based Diets

Rundle, C. M., Y. Dersjant-Li, B. Hillen, M. S. F. Oliveira, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Buttiauxella Phytase Improves Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Corn, Soybean Meal, and Canola Meal Based Diets. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 49–50. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.084. (Abstr.) Link to Absctract.

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Effects of Reducing the Concentration of Ca and P and Increasing Microbial Phytase on Gastric Ph, Fecal Score, Growth Performance, and Bone Ash of Weanling Pigs

Lagos, L. V., M. R. Bedford, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Effects of Reducing the Concentration of Ca and P and Increasing Microbial Phytase on Gastric Ph, Fecal Score, Growth Performance, and Bone Ash of Weanling Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Page 44-45. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.077 (Abstr.) Link to Abstract.

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Amino acid digestibility in cheese co-product, in fish meal, and in HP 300 fed to weanling pigs

Whey, which is a co-product from dairy processing plants that extract fat and protein from milk to make cheese has been used in diets fed to weanling pigs as a source of lactose. Whey powder does not contain much protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, cheese co-products, which contain 40 to 50% crude protein may be used in the feeding of pigs but there is limited information about the nutritional value of cheese co-products fed to pigs. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) by weanling pigs in a cheese co-product and compare values to those obtained in fish meal and in a source of enzyme treated soybean meal (HP 300).

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Effects of inclusion of hybrid rye in diets on growth performance and diarrhea incidence of weanling pigs

Production of hybrid rye in North America is increasing after being introduced to Canada and the United States in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Compared with corn, hybrid rye contains similar amounts of standardized ileal digestible amino acids, a greater concentration of standardized total tract digestible P, and approximately 94% of the metabolizable energy. Hybrid rye contains more fermentable dietary fiber than corn, which has the potential to improve gut health, but its reduced digestibility of amino acids may simultaneously have a negative impact on the health of the large intestine. Two experiments were conducted to determine the maximum amount of hybrid rye that can be included in diets for weanling pigs without influencing growth performance or diarrhea incidence.

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Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on nutrient absorption and growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, C., V. Artuso-Ponte, and H. Stein. 2018. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on nutrient absorption and growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S200. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Effect of copper hydroxychloride and heat stress on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Espinosa, C., S. Fry, M. Kocher, and H. Stein. 2018. Effect of copper hydroxychloride and heat stress on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S94-95. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for weanling pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for weanling pigs. Page 31 in Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, October 26-28, 2015. (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of including conventional or high protein canola meals in diets for nursery pigs

Canola meal is a by-product of the canola oil industry. Conventional canola meal contains about 37% crude protein, and is a good protein source for swine diets. New varieties of canola with seeds that contain less fiber and more protein than conventional canola seeds have been hybridized. The meals produced from these new hybrids have a crude protein content similar to that of dehulled soybean meal (Table 1). No data exist on how feeding these high protein canola meals to weanling pigs affects growth performance. Inclusion levels also have not been established for the use of these products in nursery diets.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect on growth performance of including conventional or high protein canola meals at different levels in diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Effects of different corn particle sizes on growth performance for weanling pigs

The metabolizable energy content of corn ground to smaller particle sizes is greater than that of corn ground to larger particle sizes, because the reduced particle size provides more surface area for digestive enzymes to act on. This results in more starch being digested in the small intestine with a subsequent absorption of glucose.

Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, it may be advisable to formulate diets containing corn ground to smaller particle sizes due to the greater ME in these diets. If diets are formulated to a constant ME, the inclusion of added fat can be reduced if corn ground to a smaller particle size is used.

In a previous experiment, growth performance did not differ among growing-finishing pigs (average initial body weight: 32 kg) fed diets containing corn ground to particle sizes ranging from 339 to 865 µm if diets were formulated to the same ME by reducing the concentration of added fat as corn particle size was reduced. The experiment discussed in this report was conducted to test the hypothesis that added fat can be reduced in diets fed to weanling pigs if corn ground to a smaller particle size is used.

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Finding phosphorus solutions for weaned-pig diets

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Finding phosphorus solutions for weaned-pig diets. Pages 24-25 in Pork Magazine, August 2010. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of including raw or extruded field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in diets fed to weanling pigs

Stein, H. H., D. N. Peters, and B. G. Kim. 2010. Effects of including raw or extruded field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:1429-1436. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Evaluation of fermented soybean meal in diets fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Evaluation of fermented soybean meal in diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):135 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs

M. Song, M. L. L. Stewart, J. Barnes, J. A. Soares, B. R. Gramm, R. D. Nimmo, H. H. Stein, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2009. Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):107 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of feeding soybean meal from high protein or low oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans to weanling pigs

Baker, K. M., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein.  2009. Effects of feeding soybean meal from high protein or low oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 2):59-60 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of including field peas in diets fed to weanling pigs

Stein, H. H., and D. N. Peters. 2008. Effects of including field peas in diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):448 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Production responses of weanling pigs fed diets containing REAP® Starter enzymes or added fat

Stein, H. H., D. Y. Kil, D. N. Peters, D. Spangler, P. Brown, D. P. Casper, and K. Haydon. 2007. Production responses of weanling pigs fed diets containing REAP® Starter enzymes or added fat. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 2):108 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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