DIAAS

Determination of digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) for salmon proteins

Protein quality has relied on methods such as PDCAAS. However, the Food and Agriculture Organization has proposed a new method called DIAAS to better assess protein quality in human foods using the pig as a model. This shift is crucial, not only for optimizing diets, but also for understanding the nutritional value of protein-rich foods. According to the DIAAS method, protein claims can only be made for foods with a score above 75. In general, animal-based foods are considered high quality proteins with score above 75 or 100, being, in most cases, complete proteins that can complement lower quality proteins such as plant-based proteins. Meats, eggs, and fish are examples of high quality proteins, however, salmon proteins are also available, and use of by-products in human consumption has been increasing due to their nutritional value and versatility. Novel sources of salmon proteins such as salmon hydrolysate that may be used in human nutrition have been developed. Salmon hydrolysate proteins contain more than 68% crude protein (CP) and are highly digestible food ingredients, but limited information demonstrating the protein quality of these products is available. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) for salmon proteins when fed to growing pigs.

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Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for egg and plant proteins

Fanelli, Natalia dos Santos, Juliana Carolina Florencio Ravagnani Martins, and Hans Henrik Stein. 2023. Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for egg and plant proteins. International Symposium Dietary Protein for Human Health. Utrecht, The Netherlands Sep 2023. Pag 74. Link to Abstract.

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Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in egg proteins and additivity of DIAAS in egg-style combinations

Protein malnutrition is a serious problem in both underdeveloped countries and the U.S., where many children and elderly people don't get enough protein. To determine the quality of food proteins, experts use a method called digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), which measures how well the body can digest the amino acids in a food item. The FAO recommended this method in 2011. According to the DIAAS method, protein claims can only be made for foods with a score above 75. Eggs are rich in protein and essential amino acids needed for muscle development and bodily functions. However, it's important to consider how eggs are cooked, as different methods can affect the availability of amino acids. Eggs are often eaten with other foods, and it's believed that the high-quality protein in eggs can make up for the lower quality of protein in plant ingredients when eaten together, but more research is needed to confirm this. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine DIAAS for eggs cooked in different forms and in traditional egg-style combinations with breads or hash brown, and test the hypothesis that protein quality in eggs can compensate for the low protein quality of plant-based ingredients and that DIAAS in different combined meals is additive.

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Comparison of True Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility between Adult Humans and Growing Pigs

Hodgkinson, Suzanne M., Natascha Stroebinger, Nikkie van der Wielen, Marco Mensink, Carlos Montoya, Wouter H. Hendriks, Sonja de Vries, Hans H. Stein, and Paul J. Moughan. 2022. Comparison of True Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility between Adult Humans and Growing Pigs. J. Nutr. 2022;152:1635–1646. doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxac077.

Protein quality evaluation in processed human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology

Bailey, H. M., E. P. Berg, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Protein quality evaluation in processed human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 423-424. (Abstr.).  Link to full text

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