Amino Acid

Nutrient digestibility and endogenous protein losses in the foregut and small intestine of weaned dairy calves fed calf starters with conventional or enzyme-treated soybean meal

Ansia, I., H. H. Stein, C. Brøkner, C. A. Hayes, and J. K. Drackley. 2021. Nutrient digestibility and endogenous protein losses in the foregut and small intestine of weaned dairy calves fed calf starters with conventional or enzyme-treated soybean meal. J. Dairy Sci. 104:2979–2995. doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18776.

Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_1, September 2020, Page 16. doi:10.1002/aocs.12427. Link to the abstract.

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Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets

Ren, Ping, Laia Blavi, Caroline González-Vega, Yanhong Liu, Deana Hancock, Mercedes Vazquez-Añón, Ferdinando N. Almeida, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci.

Ileal digestibility of amino acids in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Acosta Medellin, Jessica P., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 148. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Pork Products Have Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores (DIAAS) That Are Greater Than 100 When Determined in Pigs, but Processing Does Not Always Increase DIAAS

Bailey, Hannah M., John K. Mathai, Eric P. Berg, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Pork Products Have Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores (DIAAS) That Are Greater Than 100 When Determined in Pigs, but Processing Does Not Always Increase DIAAS. The Journal of Nutrition. Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz284.

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Transitioning from the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) to the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) to evaluate protein quality of human foods.

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Transitioning from the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) to the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) to evaluate protein quality of human foods. Inform Magazine, 30:22-24. June, 2019. Doi., 10.21748/inform.06.2019.22. Link to full text.

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Pork products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing does not always increase amino acid scores

Pork is the most widely consumed animal meat in the world accounting for approximately 40% of the total global meat intake. Pork almost always undergoes some degree of processing prior to consumption. Consequently, thermal processing induces modification to the 3-dimentional structure of proteins, which may lead to increased digestibility of amino acids (AA).

Protein quality is evaluated in human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) methodology, which can be described as the digestibility of individual dietary indispensable AA (IAA) compared with the same IAA in 1 of the 3 reference protein patterns established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Values for DIAAS of bovine meat cooked by various techniques have been determined, yet to our knowledge, there are no reported DIAAS values for pork products and the IAA digestibility of pork after processing has not been reported.

Therefore, the objective for the present work was to determine DIAAS values for pork products, and to test the hypothesis that processing may increase protein quality.

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Effects of dietary leucine concentration on branched-chain amino acid metabolism in growing pigs

Leucine, Val, and Ile are categorized as the branched-chain AA (BCAA) because of the structural similarity of their side chains. All 3 BCAA share the enzymes that are involved in the first 2 steps of their catabolic pathway. The first step is a transamination step catalyzed by BCAA transaminase (BCAT) and producing branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKA). The second step is an irreversible degradation step catalyzed by branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). In the second step, Leu has been considered a key regulator as its BCKA metabolite (α-keto isocaproate) stimulates activation of the BCKDH complex in the liver. When excess Leu in diets is offered to pigs, degradation of all 3 BCAA may increase because of increased activity of BCAT and BCKDH. Leucine and Trp are both categorized as large neutral AA, and they share a common uptake pathway across the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it is possible that excessive Leu may result in reduced Trp uptake into the brain due to competition for transporters, resulting in reduced serotonin synthesis.

 

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