Bailey

The amino acid digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid score for rapeseed protein isolate increases after moderate heating resulting in a protein quality similar to whey protein isolate

Rapeseed is the second most produced oilseed in the world after soybean, and after the oil is extracted, a protein-rich meal is the resulting byproduct containing greater concentrations of sulfur amino acids (AA; i.e., Met and Cys) and Lys compared with legumes and cereal grains. Rapeseed proteins have great potential as a high-quality plant-based protein for humans due to their well-balanced AA profile, high metabolic utilization of protein, a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) similar to soy and milk proteins, and easily separable antinutritional factors. However, to our knowledge, digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has not been determined for rapeseed protein isolate and the level of processing required to concentrate rapeseed into a protein isolate warrants further evaluation of its protein quality. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that heat treatment of rapeseed protein isolate will increase the digestibility of AA by growing pigs and result in a DIAAS that is comparable to soy and animal protein isolates.

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Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in beef or pork burgers are greater than in plant-based burgers

In the U.S. and most other developed countries, animal-based proteins provide a significant portion of the human diet. However, predictions for animal protein consumption indicates that consumption in Europe and North America will begin to decline by 2035 because plant-based proteins have become accepted as having an appearance, texture, and taste that is close to that of animal products. Examples of plant based proteins that are already on the market are plant-based burgers such as the Impossible Burger and the Beyond Burger, which are produced primarily from soy and pea protein, respectively. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is recommended by FAO as the best method to determine protein quality in human foods. This method allows for calculation of the protein value of both individual ingredients and combined meals consisting of several proteins. Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated that values for DIAAS obtained in milk and breakfast cereals are additive in mixed meals, and the principle of additivity is believed to be applicable to all types of combined meals, but additional research to demonstrate this is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine DIAAS values for animal and plant-based burgers and test the hypothesis that DIAAS calculated for a burger and a burger bun are additive in a combined meal.

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Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs

Bailey, H. M., H. H. Stein, and J. Campbell. 2021. Effect of Spray Dried Plasma on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Diets Based on Different Ingredient Combinations Fed to Young Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 80–81. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.132. Link to Abstract.

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Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals

Fanelli, Natalia S., Hannah M. Bailey, Lía V. Guardiola, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals. The Journal of Nutrition, first published online, 2021. doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa398.

Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods. J. American Oil Chemists’ Society. 97(Suppl.1): 16. doi:10.1002/aocs.12427. Link to the abstract.

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Raw and roasted pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) are ‘good’ sources of protein based on their digestible indispensable amino acid score as determined in pigs

Bailey, Hannah M., and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Raw and roasted pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) are ‘good’ sources of protein based on their digestible indispensable amino acid score as determined in pigs. J Sci Food Agric 2020; 100: 3878–3885. Link to full text.

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Most meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing may increase or reduce protein quality

Bailey, Hannah M., John K. Mathai, Eric P. Berg, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Most meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing may increase or reduce protein quality. British Journal of Nutrition (2020), 124, 14–22. doi:10.1017/S0007114520000641. Link to full text.

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Pork Products Have Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores (DIAAS) That Are Greater Than 100 When Determined in Pigs, but Processing Does Not Always Increase DIAAS

Bailey, Hannah M., John K. Mathai, Eric P. Berg, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Pork Products Have Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores (DIAAS) That Are Greater Than 100 When Determined in Pigs, but Processing Does Not Always Increase DIAAS. The Journal of Nutrition. Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz284.

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Can the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology decrease protein malnutrition

Bailey, H. M., H. H. Stein. 2019. Can the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology decrease protein malnutrition. Animal Frontiers, Volume 9, Issue 4, October 2019, Pages 18–23. Link to full text.

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Protein quality evaluation in processed human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology

Bailey, H. M., E. P. Berg, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Protein quality evaluation in processed human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score methodology. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 423-424. (Abstr.).  Link to full text

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PSIII-21 Processing of food proteins of animal origin sometimes, but not always, increases values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores

Bailey Hannah M., Eric P. Berg, Hans H. Stein. 2019. PSIII-21 Processing of food proteins of animal origin sometimes, but not always, increases values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_2, July 2019, Pages 175–176. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Transitioning from the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) to the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) to evaluate protein quality of human foods.

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Transitioning from the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) to the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) to evaluate protein quality of human foods. Inform Magazine, 30:22-24. June, 2019. Doi., 10.21748/inform.06.2019.22. Link to full text.

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Pork products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing does not always increase amino acid scores

Pork is the most widely consumed animal meat in the world accounting for approximately 40% of the total global meat intake. Pork almost always undergoes some degree of processing prior to consumption. Consequently, thermal processing induces modification to the 3-dimentional structure of proteins, which may lead to increased digestibility of amino acids (AA).

Protein quality is evaluated in human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) methodology, which can be described as the digestibility of individual dietary indispensable AA (IAA) compared with the same IAA in 1 of the 3 reference protein patterns established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Values for DIAAS of bovine meat cooked by various techniques have been determined, yet to our knowledge, there are no reported DIAAS values for pork products and the IAA digestibility of pork after processing has not been reported.

Therefore, the objective for the present work was to determine DIAAS values for pork products, and to test the hypothesis that processing may increase protein quality.

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