Rojas

Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of DE and ME and on digestibility of energy, organic matter, and fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of the ethanol industry, is an affordable source of energy and protein in pig diets. DDGS contains more gross energy than corn, but the energy is less digestible because of the high concentration of insoluble fiber in DDGS. If the fiber in DDGS could be made more soluble with pretreatment, its feed value would be improved.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of physical, chemical, and enzymatic pretreatments on the concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy and on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy, organic matter, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral (NDF) detergent fiber.

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on growth performance of weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):158 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):52 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Reducing feed particle size may enhance performance

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Reducing feed particle size may enhance performance. Page 12 in National Hog Farmer, December 15, 2013. Link to full text

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Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5326-5335. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Proceedings of the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine conference, St. Paul, Minnesota, September 14-17, 2013. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of different particle sizes of corn on feed efficiency in weanling pigs

Grinding of feedstuffs to small particle sizes is a low-cost way to increase their energy and nutrient digestibility. Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, it may be advisable to formulate diets containing corn ground to smaller particle sizes due to the greater metabolizable energy (ME) values of these diets. A previous experiment conducted by Rojas and Stein at the University of Illinois demonstrated that when diets are formulated to contain the same amount of metabolizable energy, feeding diets containing corn ground to different sizes to weanling pigs did not have a negative effect on growth performance.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that when diets are not adjusted to contain equivalent amounts of metabolizable energy, weanling pigs fed diets containing corn ground to smaller particles sizes will have an improved gain to feed ratio relative to pigs fed corn containing corn ground to larger particle sizes.

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Energy and phosphorus digestibility by weanling pigs of Lemna Protein Concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal

Lemna Protein Concentrate (LPC) is derived from the leaves of duckweed, one of several rapidly-growing aquatic plants of the genus Lemna. LPC is produced by de-oiling and de-hydrating leaves and stems of the duckweed plant. Duckweed has a number of advantages as a protein source. It is relatively inexpensive to produce and requires less growing area and fewer inputs than other plant protein sources such as soybean products. In addition, LPC has a favorable amino acid profile for use in swine diets. No published data exist on the nutritional value of LPC as fed to pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and the digestibility of phosphorus in Lemna Protein Concentrate.

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Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4397-4405. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):687 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Nutritional value of soy products fed to pigs

Stein, H. H., J. A. Roth, K. M. Sotak, and O. J. Rojas. 2013. Nutritional value of soy products fed to pigs. Swine Focus #004. Link to full text (.pdf)

Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen–soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen–soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3220-3230. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of different corn particle sizes on growth performance for weanling pigs

The metabolizable energy content of corn ground to smaller particle sizes is greater than that of corn ground to larger particle sizes, because the reduced particle size provides more surface area for digestive enzymes to act on. This results in more starch being digested in the small intestine with a subsequent absorption of glucose.

Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, it may be advisable to formulate diets containing corn ground to smaller particle sizes due to the greater ME in these diets. If diets are formulated to a constant ME, the inclusion of added fat can be reduced if corn ground to a smaller particle size is used.

In a previous experiment, growth performance did not differ among growing-finishing pigs (average initial body weight: 32 kg) fed diets containing corn ground to particle sizes ranging from 339 to 865 µm if diets were formulated to the same ME by reducing the concentration of added fat as corn particle size was reduced. The experiment discussed in this report was conducted to test the hypothesis that added fat can be reduced in diets fed to weanling pigs if corn ground to a smaller particle size is used.

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Effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Grinding feedstuffs increases their energy and nutrient digestibility, because the reduced particle size provides more surface area for digestive enzymes and microbes to act on. Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, research has shown that corn ground to smaller particle sizes contains more metabolizable energy than corn ground to larger particle sizes, which leads to greater feed efficiency.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that diets containing corn ground to reduced particle size can be formulated with less fat than diets containing corn ground to a greater particle size without compromising growth performance or carcass characteristics.

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Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Inclusion of fermented soybean meal, chicken meal, or poultry by-product meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Rojas Martinez, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Inclusion of fermented soybean meal, chicken meal, or poultry by-product meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):115 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E Digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E Digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):26 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn co-products fed to growing pigs

Song, M., J. K. Mathai, F. N. Almeida, O. J. Rojas, S. L. Tilton, M. J. Cecava, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):23-24 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is the defatted meal that remains after oil has been extracted from the seeds of the rapeseed plant, Brassica napus.  Canola meal is high in crude protein and amino acids relative to most plant protein sources, and the amino acids in canola meal are well digested by pigs. However, it is also relatively high in fiber, which reduces energy digestibility and digestible energy concentration. New varieties of Brassica napus with a thinner seed coat have been hybridized, which contain less fiber and more protein than conventional rapeseed. The meal produced from these varieties is known as high protein canola meal. No data exist for the digestibility of energy in this source of high protein canola mealwhen fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of high protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2) fed to growing pigs, and to compare these values with values for conventional canola meal (CM-CV) and soybean meal (SBM).

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Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Almeida, F. N., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Pages 269-274 in XXVIII Curso de Especialización: Avances en nutrición y alimentación animal, Madrid, Nov. 7-8, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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