Rojas

Effect on amino acid digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also be improved. Previous research at the University of Illinois indicated that particle size had no effect on the digestibility of phosphorus, but that decreasing particle size increased energy digestibility in corn in the range of 338.5 μm to 864.5 μm.

However, it is not known if reduced particle size also increases amino acid digestibility. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in corn that was ground to different particle sizes and fed to growing pigs.

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Amino acid digestibility of alternative animal protein sources fed to weanling pigs

Animal protein sources such as fish meal and protein plasma are often used in diets fed to weanling pigs because the amino acids in these sources are highly digestible and because animal protein sources do not contain the anti-nutritional factors present in soybean meal. However, the cost of fish meal has increased in recent years and there is, therefore, a need for less expensive alternatives.

Chicken meal and and poultry by-product meal are protein ingredients that have a concentration of amino acids similar to that of fish meal. Poultry by-product meal is produced from the offal of carcasses of slaughtered poultry and includes feet, necks, undeveloped eggs, and intestines. Chicken meal is prepared from clean flesh and skin of chickens without or with bone derived from the whole carcass of poultry. The quality of chicken meal and poultry by-product meal depends on the quality of the rendered parts to produce them. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, and AV-E Digest is produced by enzymatically hydrolyzing whole spent hens and extruded egg albumins. Insufficient data exist on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in these ingredients.  Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E Digest when fed to weanling pigs and to compare these values with values obtained for soybean meal.

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Effect on phosphorous and energy digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also  improved. Generating specific data on energy and nutrient digestibility will help determine the optimal particle size for feed ingredients.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and to measure the apparent (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus by growing pigs fed diets containing corn that was ground to different particle sizes.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Protein sources of animal origin provide highly digestible protein in diets for weanling pigs. Chicken meal consists primarily of skin, flesh, and sometimes bones from processed birds. Poultry by-product meal contains offal from processed chickens, including  feet, necks, beaks, undeveloped eggs, and intestinal contents. AV-E digest consists of enzymatically hydrolyzed spent hens and extruded egg albumin, mixed with a soybean meal carrier. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, which are used in the production of the drug heparin. There is a lack of data on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in all of these ingredients, which limits their use in diets fed to weanling pigs.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E digest, and to compare these values with soybean meal.

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Nutritional value of animal proteins fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Nutritional value of animal proteins fed to pigs. Pages 9-24 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 13, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Phosphorus digestibility in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the use of corn in the production of food for humans. Only limited published information is available on the digestibility of phosphorus in corn co-products derived from the human food industry.

Phosphorus from plant sources is often bound to phytate, which decreases the availability of the phosphorus to the pigs because pigs do not produce the enzyme phytase. The addition of microbial phytase to diets containing corn and soybean meal increases phosphorus digestibility in these ingredients. However, no data have been published on the effect of adding phytase to diets containing hominy feed,  bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal.

Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values to the values obtained for corn and DDGS. The effect of the addition of microbial phytase to the diets on the digestibility of phosphorus in the experimental ingredients was also measured.

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Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

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Digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with microbial phytase

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with microbial phytase. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1506-1512. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of replacing chicken meal or poultry by-product meal with fermented soybean meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Animal proteins such as milk products, blood products, fish meal, chicken meal (CM), and poultry by-product meal (PBM) are usually used as amino acid sources in diets for weanling pigs because the nutrients in these ingredients are highly digestible and because they do not contain the anti-nutritional factors that are present in conventional soybean meal. Due to the cost of animal protein sources, other alternatives have been investigated. One alternative is soybean meal which has been fermented to destroy antinutritional factors and increase protein digestibility. Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) has been shown to be able to replace milk, blood proteins, and fish meal in diets fed to weanling pigs. However, there are no data on whether or not fermented soybean meal can replace chicken meal and poultry by-product meal. An experiment was, therefore, performed to test the hypothesis that fermented soybean meal can replace chicken meal and poultry by-product meal in diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

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Effects of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Animal proteins such as milk products, blood products, fish meal, chicken meal, and poultry by-product meal are usually used as amino acid sources in diets for weanling pigs because the nutrients in these ingredients are highly digestible and because they do not contain the anti-nutritional factors that are present  in conventional soybean meal. Due to the cost of animal protein sources, other alternatives have been investigated. One alternative is soybean meal which has been fermented to destroy antinutritional factors and increase protein digestibility. Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) may partly replace milk and blood proteins in diets fed to weanling pigs from seven to 21 days post-weaning. However, there are no data on the inclusion of more than 10% FSBM in diets fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FSBM may be included in diets fed to weanling pigs to replace all animal protein sources.

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Concentration of energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a rich source of digestible amino acids for pigs. However, soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that make soybeans and conventional soybean meal unsuitable for feeding to weanling pigs in great quantities. Therefore, animal protein is usually included in starter diets for pigs. Because soy protein is less expensive than the animal protein, strategies to reduce the antinutritional factors in soy products have been explored. Fermentation of soybean meal with bacteria such as Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus subtilis eliminates many antinutritional factors, and studies have shown that fermented soybean meal is well-tolerated by weanling pigs. However, there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and amino acids in fermented soybean meal. Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to measure the concentration of DE and ME and the digestibility of amino acids in fermented soybean meal and to compare these values to values obtained in conventional soybean meal and fish meal.

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Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):333 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in fermented and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in fermented and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of phosphorus by weanling pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with exogenous phytase

The majority of phosphorus in conventional soybean meal is bound in the phytate complex. Pigs do not secrete the phytase enzyme, so phytate-bound phosphorus is not digested and is excreted in the feces. Not only does this deprive pigs of an essential nutrient, but excessive phosphorus excretion can contribute to environmental problems as well.

Addition of microbial phytase is one strategy for increasing the digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal. Another potentially effective strategy is to feed fermented soybean meal.  Fermentation may result in hydrolysis of phytate and release of phytate-bound phosphorus, thus making more phosphorus available to the pig.

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Fermented soybean meal substitutes for fish meal

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Fermented soybean meal substitutes for fish meal. Page 16 in National Hog Farmer, December 15, 2010. Link to full text

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Evaluation of fermented soybean meal in diets fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Evaluation of fermented soybean meal in diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):135 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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