Energy

Interactive effects of reducing particle size and extrusion on energy digestibility and concentrations of digestible energy and metabolizable energy in corn fed to young pigs

Particle size reduction in cereal grains often results in an improved digestibility of starch due to increased surface area of grains, which subsequently increases the interaction with digestive enzymes. Improvement in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) upon particle size reduction has also been demonstrated in corn and a number of other ingredients when fed to weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

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The Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-Phytase Variant on Ileal Digestibility of Energy in Growing Pigs: Meta-Analysis of 4 Trials

Velayudhan, Deepak E., Ester Vinyeta-Punti, Rachael Hardy, Leon Marchal, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Hans H. Stein, Yueming Dersjant-Li. 2023. The Effect of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-Phytase Variant on Ileal Digestibility of Energy in Growing Pigs: Meta-Analysis of 4 Trials. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement_2, November 2023, Pages 117–118, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.131. Link to full text.

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Concentrations of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy, Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids, and Digestibility of Phosphorus in a New Variety of Soybeans Fed to Growing Pigs

Cristobal, Minoy A., Carl M. M. Parsons, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Concentrations of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy, Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids, and Digestibility of Phosphorus in a New Variety of Soybeans Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 51 - 52, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.056. Link to abstract.

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Concentration of Digestible Energy in Corn-Based Diets Fed to Gestating and Lactating Sows is Increased by Adding Xylanase to the Diets

Acosta Medellin, Jessica P., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Gemma Gonzalez Ortiz, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Concentration of Digestible Energy in Corn-Based Diets Fed to Gestating and Lactating Sows is Increased by Adding Xylanase to the Diets. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 35–36, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.040. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy by gestating and lactating sows and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in diets containing pistachio shell powder or soybean hulls

California is a leading producer of pistachios in the United States and globally and it is estimated that annual production will reach 2.08 billion pounds in 2031. As a result, about 31.2 million pounds of shells will be produced after the nuts are processed for human consumption. Pistachio shells have been viewed as a waste product and are frequently disposed of using ecologically friendly practices. However, it is possible that pistachio shell powder can be used as a high fiber ingredient for swine. Specifically, gestating sows may benefit from the high fiber concentration in pistachio shell powder because this may increase satiety and reduce stress. However, at this time, there is no information about the nutritional value of pistachio shell powder when fed to sows. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in pistachio shell powder are not different from those in soybean hulls when fed to gestating sows. The second hypothesis was that the ATTD of GE and DE in pistachio shell powder are not different from those in soybean hulls when fed to lactating sows.

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Metabolizable energy and apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients differ among samples of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Metabolizable energy and apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients differ among samples of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101, 1–8. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad117. Link to full text.

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Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Joaquin Cabañas-Ojeda, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101: 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad124. Link to full text.

Exogenous xylanase increases digestibility of energy and fiber in diets for gestating and lactating sows

Exogenous enzymes may improve the fermentability of dietary fiber in swine diets by hydrolyzing non-starch polysaccharides into oligosaccharides and sugars. In particular, the enzyme xylanase hydrolyzes the β-(1-4) glycosidic bonds between the xylose units in the backbone of arabinoxylans in cereal grains and grain coproducts, resulting in the release of a combination of xylose, arabinose, and xylo-oligosaccharides from arabinoxylans that can be fermented by pigs. Previous data indicate that xylanase increased the degradation of dietary fiber and increased energy digestibility in diets for growing pigs; however, there are limited data for the impact of xylanase on energy and fiber digestibility in gestating and lactating sows. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that exogenous xylanase added to diets for gestating and lactating sows will increase the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy and total dietary fiber (TDF), and increase the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) during two reproductive cycles.

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Effects of different corn sources and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and total dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs

Drying temperatures and corn varieties that inherently differ in kernel hardness, virtuousness, and protein solubility index may influence nutrient digestibility in corn. However, information about interactive effects of corn source (i.e., endosperm hardness) and drying method on energy and nutrient digestibility is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and total dietary fiber (TDF) is influenced by corn source and drying temperature.

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Effects of a mixture of xylanase and glucanase on digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in corn- or sorghum based diets fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., C. D. Espinosa, L. Blavi, M. Mortada, F. N. Almeida, H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of a mixture of xylanase and glucanase on digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in corn- or sorghum based diets fed to growing pigs.

Digestibility of energy in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data have been published for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) have been reported as well. However, it is not known if the data obtained in wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in composition, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), and concentration of DE and ME between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Apparent digestibility of energy and nutrients and efficiency of microbial phytase is influenced by body weight of pigs

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Apparent digestibility of energy and nutrients and efficiency of microbial phytase is influenced by body weight of pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–13. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac269. Link to full text.

Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of high protein corn fermented products and in Post MSC DDGS.

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Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn–soybean meal diets without or with full-fat or defatted rice bran

Casas, Gloria A., Maryane S.F. Oliveira, Charmaine D. Espinosa, and H.H. Stein. 2022. Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn–soybean meal diets without or with full-fat or defatted rice bran. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 401–405 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0086.

Metabolizable energy in corn is greater than in hybrid rye when fed to gestating sows, but exogenous enzymes did not increase energy digestibility

McGhee, Molly L., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Metabolizable energy in corn is greater than in hybrid rye when fed to gestating sows, but exogenous enzymes did not increase energy digestibility. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 392–395 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0054. Link to full text.

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Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Lee, Su A., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of  metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 184–188 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0018. Link to full text.

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Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn-soybean meal diets without or with full fat or defatted rice bran

The physiological stage of pigs may influence total tract digestibility of nutrients because the digestibility of energy and some nutrients increases as body weight increases, but the impact of physiological stage may be greater for high-fiber diets than for diets with less concentration of fiber. Full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) are produced in the rice milling process and is available for animal feeding. However, because of the high concentration of dietary fiber, FFRB and DFRB may be better suited for diets fed to sows than for diets for weanling or growing pigs, but there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in FFRB and DFRB fed to sows. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null-hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and P in a corn-soybean meal diet and in diets containing FFRB or DFRB is not different between lactating sows and gestating sows if both groups are allowed to consume their diet on an ad libitum basis.

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Digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein, and fat and concentration of metabolizable energy in sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal (SFM) is a protein source that can be included in diets for pigs and other livestock species. In addition to providing amino acids, SFM also provide energy and other nutrients to diets, but because of the high concentration of fiber, SFM does not contain as much energy as other oilseed meals. The nutritive value of SFM depend on growing area, degree of de-hulling, and oil extraction process. Sunflower meal is obtained through a prepress-solvent extraction method, which yields a meal product with less than 3% fat. However, a double press procedure without solvent extraction may also be used to remove oil from the seeds, which results in generation of a co-product called sunflower expellers (SFE). Because the double-press procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the seeds, SFE contains between 6 and 10% oil. The concentration of fiber and protein also varies among different sources of SFM and SFE and is largely determined by the degree of de-hulling that takes place prior to oil extraction. Because the hulls are very high in fiber, there is a linear relationship between fiber concentration and the concentration of hulls in SFM and SFE, and there is a negative relationship between fiber and protein concentrations. However, data on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in different sources of sunflower co-products are limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy and concentrations of DE and ME in SFM fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there are no difference in the ATTD of nutrients and energy concentrations between SFM and SFE fed to growing pigs.

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A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs

Acosta, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, N. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2021. A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 85–86. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.139. Link to Abstract.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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