Energy

Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Cristobal Romero, Minoy A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 187. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and dietary fiber by growing pigs and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum-based diets without or with microbial enzymes

Oliveira, Maryane, Charmaine Espinosa, Ferdinando Almeida, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of energy and dietary fiber by growing pigs and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum-based diets without or with microbial enzymes. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 66 - 67. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a high protein corn product fed to growing pigs

A new source of corn protein (NexPro) that is produced from the ethanol industry has been developed by Flint Hills Resources (Wichita, KS). NexPro contains approximately 50% crude protein and the digestibility of amino acids was reported in our November, 2020, Newsletter. However, there is at this time no information about the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in this new source of protein. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME in corn protein are greater than in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; i.e., DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) when fed to growing pigs.

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Conditioning and expansion increase nutritional value of soybean expellers

Soybean expellers contain trypsin inhibitors, which negatively affect nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency, and health status of animals. Therefore, heat treatment is needed to inactivate trypsin inhibitors to improve nutrient digestibility in soybean expellers. Different types and degrees of processing conditions may influence digestibility of energy and amino acids (AA) in soybean expellers, but there is a lack of data demonstrating how long heat treatment is needed if soybean expellers are expander processed after hydrothermical conditioning. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, as well as values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in soybean expellers increase the longer heat is applied to the expellers.

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Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa297.

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Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, Minoy, Jessica P. Acosta, Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa200.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in L-threonine and L-valine biomass products fed to weanling pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., C. D. Espinosa, J. D. Berrocoso, O. J. Rojas, J. K. Htood H. H. Stein. 2020. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in L-threonine and L-valine biomass products fed to weanling pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114463. Link to full text.

Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Lagos, Vanessa L., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1-9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz375. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of energy and phosphorus and concentration of metabolizable energy in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains fed to growing pigs

Recently a high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDGS; ProCap DDGS, Marquis Energy, Hennepin, IL) was developed and the HP-DDGS has greater concentrations of CP and fat, but contains less fiber compared with conventional DDGS, which may affect the digestibility of energy and P and concentrations of DE and ME. There are, however, no data for the nutritional value of this new source of DDGS. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in HP-DDGS are greater than in conventional DDGS.

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Phosphorus and energy digestibility of Fermex 200 (fermented soybean meal) fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most important protein sources in swine diets. However, most P in SBM is bound to phytate, which increases inclusion of inorganic P in diets for pigs. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. Fermex 200 (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA) is a new source of fermented SBM that may serve as an alternative to other protein sources in diets fed to pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing Fermex 200 and no data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations of Fermex 200.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in conventional SBM and Fermex 200. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in Fermex 200 are greater than in conventional SBM.

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Digestibility of amino acids, energy, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Espinosa Charmaine D., Su A. Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Digestibility of amino acids, energy, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2019.3:662–675. Link to full text

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Extruded grains increase concentration, utilization of energy

Rodriguez, D. A., and H. H. Stein. 2018. Extruded grains increase concentration, utilization of energy. National Hog Farmer, On Line edition. Nov. 29, 2018. Link to full text.

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Effects of two direct fed microbials on digestibility of amino acids and energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi, L., J. Jørgensen, and H. Stein. 2018. Effects of two direct fed microbials on digestibility of amino acids and energy in diets fed to growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S147. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Amino acid and energy digestibility of an enhanced torula yeast and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Yeast may be used instead of fish meal or other animal protein sources in diets for weanling pigs and there are several yeast proteins available. A newly developed enhanced torula yeast is derived from forestry by-products, and therefore, has a lower carbon-footprint compared with other yeast products. This enhanced torula yeast has an improved amino acid (AA) profile compared with traditional fermentation products, but at this time no data for the nutritional value of enhanced torula yeast fed to weanling pigs have been published. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the AA and energy values of enhanced torula yeast is not different from that of fish meal. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were determined, whereas Exp. 2 was designed to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in both enhanced torula yeast and fish meal.

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Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi Laia, Jens N. Jørgensen, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:727–734. Link to full text.

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Nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum, red sorghum, white sorghum, and yellow dent corn fed to growing pigs

Sorghum is used as an alternative to corn due to its lower cost and wide availability. However, conventional sorghum contains high concentration of tannin and phytate, which act as antinutritional factors. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. High-lysine sorghum is a new variety of sorghum which may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing sorghum and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-lysine sorghum.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in sorghum varieties. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high-lysine sorghum is not different from that of corn and other sources of sorghum.

 

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Methodology effects on determining the energy concentration and the apparent total tract digestibility of components in diets fed to growing pigs

Huang, C., P. Li, X. Ma, N. W. Jaworski, H. H. Stein, C. Lai, J. Zhao, and S. Zhang. 2018. Methodology effects on determining the energy concentration and the apparent total tract digestibility of components in diets fed to growing pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1315-1324. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Analysis for low-molecular-weight carbohydrates is needed to account for all energy-contributing nutrients in some feed ingredients, but physical characteristics do not predict in vitro digestibility of dry matter

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Analysis for low-molecular-weight carbohydrates is needed to account for all energy-contributing nutrients in some feed ingredients, but physical characteristics do not predict in vitro digestibility of dry matter. J. Anim. Sci. 96:532-544. Link to full text

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