Energy

Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Lee, Su A., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of  metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 184–188 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0018. Link to full text.

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Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn-soybean meal diets without or with full fat or defatted rice bran

The physiological stage of pigs may influence total tract digestibility of nutrients because the digestibility of energy and some nutrients increases as body weight increases, but the impact of physiological stage may be greater for high-fiber diets than for diets with less concentration of fiber. Full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) are produced in the rice milling process and is available for animal feeding. However, because of the high concentration of dietary fiber, FFRB and DFRB may be better suited for diets fed to sows than for diets for weanling or growing pigs, but there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in FFRB and DFRB fed to sows. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null-hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and P in a corn-soybean meal diet and in diets containing FFRB or DFRB is not different between lactating sows and gestating sows if both groups are allowed to consume their diet on an ad libitum basis.

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Digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein, and fat and concentration of metabolizable energy in sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal (SFM) is a protein source that can be included in diets for pigs and other livestock species. In addition to providing amino acids, SFM also provide energy and other nutrients to diets, but because of the high concentration of fiber, SFM does not contain as much energy as other oilseed meals. The nutritive value of SFM depend on growing area, degree of de-hulling, and oil extraction process. Sunflower meal is obtained through a prepress-solvent extraction method, which yields a meal product with less than 3% fat. However, a double press procedure without solvent extraction may also be used to remove oil from the seeds, which results in generation of a co-product called sunflower expellers (SFE). Because the double-press procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the seeds, SFE contains between 6 and 10% oil. The concentration of fiber and protein also varies among different sources of SFM and SFE and is largely determined by the degree of de-hulling that takes place prior to oil extraction. Because the hulls are very high in fiber, there is a linear relationship between fiber concentration and the concentration of hulls in SFM and SFE, and there is a negative relationship between fiber and protein concentrations. However, data on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in different sources of sunflower co-products are limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy and concentrations of DE and ME in SFM fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there are no difference in the ATTD of nutrients and energy concentrations between SFM and SFE fed to growing pigs.

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A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs

Acosta, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, N. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2021. A Corn Protein Product Has Greater Concentration of Digestible Amino Acids and Energy Than Low-oil Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles When Fed to Pigs and May Be Used in Diets for Weanling Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 85–86. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.139. Link to Abstract.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Cristobal Romero, Minoy A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 98(Suppl. 3): 187. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.331. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and dietary fiber by growing pigs and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum-based diets without or with microbial enzymes

Oliveira, Maryane, Charmaine Espinosa, Ferdinando Almeida, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of energy and dietary fiber by growing pigs and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum-based diets without or with microbial enzymes. J. Anim. Sci. 98(Suppl. 3): 66-67.  doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.120. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a high protein corn product fed to growing pigs

A new source of corn protein (NexPro) that is produced from the ethanol industry has been developed by Flint Hills Resources (Wichita, KS). NexPro contains approximately 50% crude protein and the digestibility of amino acids was reported in our November, 2020, Newsletter. However, there is at this time no information about the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in this new source of protein. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME in corn protein are greater than in 2 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; i.e., DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) when fed to growing pigs.

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Conditioning and expansion increase nutritional value of soybean expellers

Soybean expellers contain trypsin inhibitors, which negatively affect nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency, and health status of animals. Therefore, heat treatment is needed to inactivate trypsin inhibitors to improve nutrient digestibility in soybean expellers. Different types and degrees of processing conditions may influence digestibility of energy and amino acids (AA) in soybean expellers, but there is a lack of data demonstrating how long heat treatment is needed if soybean expellers are expander processed after hydrothermical conditioning. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, as well as values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in soybean expellers increase the longer heat is applied to the expellers.

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Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa297.

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Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, Minoy, Jessica P. Acosta, Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa200.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in L-threonine and L-valine biomass products fed to weanling pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., C. D. Espinosa, J. D. Berrocoso, O. J. Rojas, J. K. Htood H. H. Stein. 2020. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in L-threonine and L-valine biomass products fed to weanling pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114463. Link to full text.

Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Lagos, Vanessa L., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1-9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz375. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of energy and phosphorus and concentration of metabolizable energy in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains fed to growing pigs

Recently a high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDGS; ProCap DDGS, Marquis Energy, Hennepin, IL) was developed and the HP-DDGS has greater concentrations of CP and fat, but contains less fiber compared with conventional DDGS, which may affect the digestibility of energy and P and concentrations of DE and ME. There are, however, no data for the nutritional value of this new source of DDGS. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that concentrations of DE and ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in HP-DDGS are greater than in conventional DDGS.

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Phosphorus and energy digestibility of Fermex 200 (fermented soybean meal) fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most important protein sources in swine diets. However, most P in SBM is bound to phytate, which increases inclusion of inorganic P in diets for pigs. Use of microbial phytase may hydrolyze phytate and subsequently improve P absorption. Fermex 200 (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA) is a new source of fermented SBM that may serve as an alternative to other protein sources in diets fed to pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing Fermex 200 and no data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations of Fermex 200.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase improves the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in conventional SBM and Fermex 200. The second hypothesis was that the STTD of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in Fermex 200 are greater than in conventional SBM.

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Digestibility of amino acids, energy, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Espinosa Charmaine D., Su A. Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Digestibility of amino acids, energy, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2019.3:662–675. Link to full text

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Extruded grains increase concentration, utilization of energy

Rodriguez, D. A., and H. H. Stein. 2018. Extruded grains increase concentration, utilization of energy. National Hog Farmer, On Line edition. Nov. 29, 2018. Link to full text.

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Effects of two direct fed microbials on digestibility of amino acids and energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi, L., J. Jørgensen, and H. Stein. 2018. Effects of two direct fed microbials on digestibility of amino acids and energy in diets fed to growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S147. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Amino acid and energy digestibility of an enhanced torula yeast and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Yeast may be used instead of fish meal or other animal protein sources in diets for weanling pigs and there are several yeast proteins available. A newly developed enhanced torula yeast is derived from forestry by-products, and therefore, has a lower carbon-footprint compared with other yeast products. This enhanced torula yeast has an improved amino acid (AA) profile compared with traditional fermentation products, but at this time no data for the nutritional value of enhanced torula yeast fed to weanling pigs have been published. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the AA and energy values of enhanced torula yeast is not different from that of fish meal. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were determined, whereas Exp. 2 was designed to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in both enhanced torula yeast and fish meal.

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