Corn

Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, energy, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in conventional and extruded yellow dent corn, wheat, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

Extrusion of cereal grains may be used to improve nutrient digestibility in cereal grains because addition of heat and pressure in combination with addition of moisture during the extrusion may gelatinize the starch, which results in an increase in starch digestibility. It is also possible that AA and energy digestibility are increased by the extrusion, but data to verify this hypothesis have not been published. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of AA and starch and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ADF, NDF, and GE as well as the concentrations of DE and ME in corn, wheat, and sorghum are increased by extrusion.

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Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on the apparent total tract digestibility of energy, DM, and nutrients by growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on the apparent total tract digestibility of energy, DM, and nutrients by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2265–2277. Link to abstract

Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

Until recently, rye has been less suitable for livestock feed than other cereal grains due to the risk of ergot contamination. However, recently developed hybrids are less susceptible to ergot contamination. There is limited information about the nutritional value of hybrid rye when fed to pigs.

In cereal grains, most of the phosphorus is bound to phytic acid, and is not available to pigs unless phytase is present. This is usually achieved by adding supplemental phytase, derived from microbes, to the diets. However, rye contains more intrinsic phytase than other cereal grains, so the phosphorus in rye may be more digestible. The addition of microbial phytase might also have less of an effect on phosphorus digestibility in rye than in other grains because of the high concentrations of intrinsic phytase in rye, but limited information about digestibility of phosphorus in rye has been reported.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of hybrids of rye and in barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs

McGhee, M. L. and H. H. Stein. 2018. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of hybrids of rye and in barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):142 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids and starch in hybrid rye compared with other cereal grains fed to pigs

Hybrid rye is grown in Europe, Canada, and the United States, and compared with conventional rye, it has increased yields and reduced risk of ergot contamination, making it an interesting ingredient in the feeding of pigs. However, there is limited information about the nutritional value of hybrid rye when fed to pigs. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids, as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of starch in hybrid rye compared with barley, wheat, and corn.

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Effects of physicochemical characteristics on in vitro and in vivo nutrient digestibility in pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of physicochemical characteristics on in vitro and in vivo nutrient digestibility in pigs. Page 414 in Book of Abstracts of the 68th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China

Huang, C. F., H. H. Stein, L. Y. Zhang, D. Li, and C. H. Lai. 2017. Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China. Transl. Anim. Sci. 1:126-136. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Xylanase responses on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, fiber and energy in growing pigs fed corn, 30% corn co-products and soybean meal based diets as influenced by microbial phytase and acclimatization period

Kiarie, E., Y. Liu, M. C. Walsh, H. H. Stein, and L. Payling. 2016. Xylanase responses on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, fiber and energy in growing pigs fed corn, 30% corn co-products and soybean meal based diets as influenced by microbial phytase and acclimatization period. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):112-113 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing–finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing–finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:619-628. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Page 23 in Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, October 26-28, 2015. (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn grain on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn grain fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn grain on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn grain fed to growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 181:187-193. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Comparative efficacy of xylanases on energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets

Kiarie, E., L. F. Romero, S. Arent, R. Lorentsen, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Comparative efficacy of xylanases on energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):225 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains

Jaworski, N. W., H. N. Lærke, K. E. Bach Knudsen, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains. J. Anim. Sci. 93:1103-1113. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on ATTD of energy, organic matter, and detergent fiber in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on apparent total tract digestibility of energy, organic matter, and detergent fiber in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):135 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of extrusion of corn and oats on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to pigs

Liu, Y., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of extrusion of corn and oats on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):134-135 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of extrusion of corn and oats on the digestibility of energy, crude protein, and fiber in diets fed to pigs

In extrusion, cereal grains are processed under conditions of heat and pressure. Like other types of heat treatment, extrusion may reduce the concentration of antinutritional factors. Extrusion also gelatinizes starch, improving its digestibility. Improved digestibility of starch should, in turn, lead to an increase in digestible energy. Extrusion has also been shown in some studies to solubilize the insoluble fraction of the fiber which would also increase fiber digestibility and digestible energy.

Corn is a high starch ingredient, while oats are high in fiber. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of extruding corn and oats on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and fiber when fed to growing pigs.

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Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower–finisher swine

Mahan, D. C., M. Azain, T. D. Crenshaw, G. L. Cromwell, C. R. Dove, S. W. Kim, M. D. Lindemann, P. S. Miller, J. E. Pettigrew, H. H. Stein, and E. van Heugten. 2014. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4991-4997. Link to full text (.pdf)

Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):668 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. I. Chemical composition, energy concentration, and digestibility of nutrients

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. I. Chemical composition, energy concentration, and digestibility of nutrients. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):667 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in field peas, fish meal, corn, soybean meal, and soybean hulls

Mathai, J. K. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility in field peas, fish meal, corn, soybean meal, and soybean hulls. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):648 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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