Corn

Digestibility of amino acids in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) is greater than in soybean meal (SBM).

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Metabolizable energy in corn is greater than in hybrid rye when fed to gestating sows, but exogenous enzymes did not increase energy digestibility

McGhee, Molly L., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Metabolizable energy in corn is greater than in hybrid rye when fed to gestating sows, but exogenous enzymes did not increase energy digestibility. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 392–395 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0054. Link to full text.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets based on conventional corn or high-oil corn

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn) which is believed to contain greater concentrations of oil and crude protein than conventional corn. Indeed, results from digestibility experiments indicated that high-oil corn contained more standardized ileal digestible amino acids, digestible P, and metabolizable energy compared with conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that the newly developed high-oil corn may improve pig growth performance, but data to demonstrate this are limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that high-oil corn improves growth performance of weanling pigs.

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Replacing corn with bakery meal in weanling pig diets: effect on welfare and growth performance

Luciano, A., C. D. Espinosa, L. Pinotti, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Replacing corn with bakery meal in weanling pig diets: effect on welfare and growth performance. Book of Abstracts. 72nd Ann. Meet. European Fed. Anim.  Sci. Aug. 30 – Sep. 3, 2021, Davos Switzerland. Page 413. Link to abstract.

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High inclusion rates of hybrid rye instead of corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs do not influence the overall growth performance and most carcass traits are not influenced by hybrid rye

McGhee, Molly L., Bailey N. Harsh, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. High inclusion rates of hybrid rye instead of corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs do not influence the overall growth performance and most carcass traits are not influenced by hybrid rye. J. Anim. Sci. 99: 12, 1–8. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab324. Link to full text.

Inclusion of hybrid rye in diets for weanling pigs does not compromise daily gain, but may reduce diarrhea incidence despite pigs having preference for consuming corn over hybrid rye

McGhee, M. L., H. H. Stein. 2021. Inclusion of hybrid rye in diets for weanling pigs does not compromise daily gain, but may reduce diarrhea incidence despite pigs having preference for consuming corn over hybrid rye. Animal Feed Science and Technology 281 (2021) 115113.

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Hybrid rye may replace up to 75% of the corn in diets for gestating and lactating sows without negatively impacting sow and piglet performance

McGhee, Molly L., Hans. H. Stein. 2021. Hybrid rye may replace up to 75% of the corn in diets for gestating and lactating sows without negatively impacting sow and piglet performance. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 9, 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab230. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, C. D., N. S. Fanelli, H. H. Stein. 2021. Digestibility of amino acids and concentration of metabolizable energy are greater in high-oil corn than in conventional corn when fed to growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280: 115040. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115040. Link to full text.

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Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced

McGhee, M. L., and H. H. Stein. 2021. Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 51–52. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.087. Link to Abstract.

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Buttiauxella Phytase Improves Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Corn, Soybean Meal, and Canola Meal Based Diets

Rundle, C. M., Y. Dersjant-Li, B. Hillen, M. S. F. Oliveira, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Buttiauxella Phytase Improves Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Corn, Soybean Meal, and Canola Meal Based Diets. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 49–50. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.084. (Abstr.) Link to Absctract.

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Hybrid rye may replace corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs without influencing most carcass traits, but feed intake may be reduced at high inclusion rates

Hybrid rye may replace a portion of barley or wheat in diets for growing and finishing pigs with minimal impact on growth performance or carcass characteristics, but at very high inclusion rates in finishing diets, feed intake may be reduced if hybrid rye replaces wheat. However, limited published data exist for effects of feeding hybrid rye to growing-finishing pigs in place of corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that average daily gain (ADG) and carcass characteristics will not differ when hybrid rye partially replaces corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

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Espinosa, C. D., J. P. Acosta, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Growth performance not sacrificed with corn protein. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, October, 2020.

Espinosa, C. D., J. P. Acosta, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Growth performance not sacrificed with corn protein. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, October, 2020. Link to full text.

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Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum and the effects on nursery pig growth performance

Thomas, Lori L., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Robert D. Goodband, Hans H. Stein, Mike D. Tokach, Steve S. Dritz, Jason C. Woodworth, and Joel M. DeRouchey. 2020. Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum and the effects on nursery pig growth performance. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–16.  doi:10.1093/jas/skaa120.

Digestible and metabolizable energy in corn- or sorghum based diets may be improved by addition of a xylanase-cellulase enzyme mixture

Exogenous carbohydrases can be used in diets for pigs to increase digestibility of dietary fiber and energy in cereal grains and cereal co-products. The three main fibers in cereal grains and cereal co-products are arabinoxylans, cellulose, and mixed-linked beta glucans. The fermentability is different among these three types of fiber. Energy digestibility is often improved if xylanase is added to wheat-based diets, whereas positive responses to xylanase in corn-based diets have been difficult to demonstrate, indicating that fermentation of dietary fiber differs among ingredients. However, there is less information about effects of carbohydrases on digestibility of fiber and energy in sorghum-based diets. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that xylanase and cellulase improve the digestibility of energy and total dietary fiber in diets based on corn or sorghum with addition of high fiber co-products.

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Disappearance of dietary fibre in the small intestine, large intestine, and total tract of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase

Abelilla, J. J., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Disappearance of dietary fibre in the small intestine, large intestine, and total tract of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase. Manipulating Pig Production XVII. Proc. 17th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Pig Sci. Ass. (APSA), Adelaide, Australia, 17-20 Nov. 2019. Adv. Anim.

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Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on nutrient absorption and growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, C., V. Artuso-Ponte, and H. Stein. 2018. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on nutrient absorption and growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S200. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase

Abelilla Jerubella J.,  and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase. J. Anim. Sci. 97:338–352. Link to full text.

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Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial

Payling Laura, Tofuko A. Woyengo, Mogens Nielsen, Hans H. Stein, Maria C. Walsh, Luis Romero, and Susan Arent, 2019. Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019. 247:183-193. Link to full text.

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