Corn

Endosperm Hardness in Corn Affects the Digestibility of Energy and Fiber, and Increased Drying Temperature Reduces Amino Acid Digestibility

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Joaquin Cabañas-Ojeda, Edgar Oviedo-Rondon, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Endosperm Hardness in Corn Affects the Digestibility of Energy and Fiber, and Increased Drying Temperature Reduces Amino Acid Digestibility. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 299–300, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.340. Link to abstract.

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Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility by Growing Pigs may be Reduced if Excessive Heat is Applied During Drying of Corn

Oliveira, Maryane Sespere Faria, Leidy J. Torres-Mendoza, Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibility by Growing Pigs may be Reduced if Excessive Heat is Applied During Drying of Corn. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 189–190, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.208. Link to abstract.

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Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on Ileal Digestibility of Starch and Amino Acids in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Pigs

Lee, Su A., Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on Ileal Digestibility of Starch and Amino Acids in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement, Pages 186–187, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.205. Link to abstract.

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Concentration of Net Energy in Corn without or with Microbial Phytase Fed to Group-Housed Pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Concentration of Net Energy in Corn without or with Microbial Phytase Fed to Group-Housed Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 151–152, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.169. Link to abstract.

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Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, C. B. Paulk, H. H. Stein. 2023. Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs. Animal - science proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 857-858. doi: 10.1016/j.anscip.2023.09.041.

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Concentration of net energy in corn without or with microbial phytase fed to group-housed pigs

Corn is the primary grain used in pig diets and provides most energy to the diets. Because energy is the most expensive component in diet formulation, it is critical to accurately determine energy concentrations in corn. Use of exogenous phytase in pig diets has been a standard and most phytase is expected to generate extra-phosphoric effects that result in increases in minerals, amino acid, or energy digestibility. Therefore, phytase companies have provided customers with matrix values that can be used for down specs of energy and nutrients in diet formulation. It is thus important to confirm if dietary phytase releases energy and other nutrients as suggested before using them. To our knowledge, however, there is no information on how much phytase can increase net energy (NE) in corn when fed to group-housed pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that addition of microbial phytase to a corn-based diet increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentration of NE by group-housed growing pigs.

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Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Joaquin Cabañas-Ojeda, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101: 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad124. Link to full text.

Weanling pigs consume more feed if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets, but average daily gain and fecal scores are not impacted by hybrid rye

McGhee, Molly L., Jessica P. Acosta, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Weanling pigs consume more feed if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets, but average daily gain and fecal scores are not impacted by hybrid rye. Translational Animal Science, 7: 1–10. doi.org/10.1093/tas/txad022. Link to full text.

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Effects of different corn sources and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and total dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs

Drying temperatures and corn varieties that inherently differ in kernel hardness, virtuousness, and protein solubility index may influence nutrient digestibility in corn. However, information about interactive effects of corn source (i.e., endosperm hardness) and drying method on energy and nutrient digestibility is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and total dietary fiber (TDF) is influenced by corn source and drying temperature.

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Effects of different corn sources and drying temperature on ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Drying temperatures and corn varieties that inherently differ in kernel hardness, virtuousness, and protein solubility index may influence nutrient digestibility in corn. However, information about interactive effects of corn source (i.e., endosperm hardness) and drying method on nutrient digestibility is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of starch, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) is influenced by corn source and drying temperature.

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Metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced if excessive heat is applied during drying of corn

Corn is harvested at a high moisture level, and thus must be dried to less than 15% moisture to ensure safe storage. Improvements to reduce the energy consumption of the dryers have been implemented, especially by increasing the inlet air temperature. However, overheating may have a negative impact on the stability of nutrients, especially amino acids (AA), because Maillard reactions may occur if heat and moisture are applied to feed ingredients. Consequently, Maillard reactions result in a decrease in the concentration and digestibility of AA, and it is possible that energy digestibility is also reduced. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that both the temperature used in drying and the time that heat is applied will affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, and concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in corn fed to growing pigs.

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Preference for feed, but not growth performance, is reduced if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

McGhee, M. L.,  H. H. Stein. 2023. Preference for feed, but not growth performance, is reduced if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 296 (2023) 115566. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2022.115566. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of high protein corn fermented products and in Post MSC DDGS.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) is greater than in soybean meal (SBM).

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Metabolizable energy in corn is greater than in hybrid rye when fed to gestating sows, but exogenous enzymes did not increase energy digestibility

McGhee, Molly L., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Metabolizable energy in corn is greater than in hybrid rye when fed to gestating sows, but exogenous enzymes did not increase energy digestibility. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 392–395 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0054. Link to full text.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets based on conventional corn or high-oil corn

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn) which is believed to contain greater concentrations of oil and crude protein than conventional corn. Indeed, results from digestibility experiments indicated that high-oil corn contained more standardized ileal digestible amino acids, digestible P, and metabolizable energy compared with conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that the newly developed high-oil corn may improve pig growth performance, but data to demonstrate this are limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that high-oil corn improves growth performance of weanling pigs.

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Replacing corn with bakery meal in weanling pig diets: effect on welfare and growth performance

Luciano, A., C. D. Espinosa, L. Pinotti, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Replacing corn with bakery meal in weanling pig diets: effect on welfare and growth performance. Book of Abstracts. 72nd Ann. Meet. European Fed. Anim.  Sci. Aug. 30 – Sep. 3, 2021, Davos Switzerland. Page 413. Link to abstract.

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High inclusion rates of hybrid rye instead of corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs do not influence the overall growth performance and most carcass traits are not influenced by hybrid rye

McGhee, Molly L., Bailey N. Harsh, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. High inclusion rates of hybrid rye instead of corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs do not influence the overall growth performance and most carcass traits are not influenced by hybrid rye. J. Anim. Sci. 99: 12, 1–8. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab324. Link to full text.

Inclusion of hybrid rye in diets for weanling pigs does not compromise daily gain, but may reduce diarrhea incidence despite pigs having preference for consuming corn over hybrid rye

McGhee, M. L., H. H. Stein. 2021. Inclusion of hybrid rye in diets for weanling pigs does not compromise daily gain, but may reduce diarrhea incidence despite pigs having preference for consuming corn over hybrid rye. Animal Feed Science and Technology 281 (2021) 115113.

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Hybrid rye may replace up to 75% of the corn in diets for gestating and lactating sows without negatively impacting sow and piglet performance

McGhee, Molly L., Hans. H. Stein. 2021. Hybrid rye may replace up to 75% of the corn in diets for gestating and lactating sows without negatively impacting sow and piglet performance. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 9, 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab230. Link to full text.

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