Particle size

Feed preference of weanling pigs fed diets containing extruded corn ground to different particle sizes

Extrusion results in increased digestibility of energy, which is primarily due to increased gelatinization of starch. Because this process improves flavor of cereal grains, it is known that extrusion improves palatability in pig diets. Particle size reduction in cereal grains results in an improved digestibility of nutrients due to increased surface area of grains, which subsequently increases the interaction with digestive enzymes. However, because grinding changes the textural traits of grains, the palatability of feeds is low and thus feed intake of pigs is often reduced.

The feed preference of pigs may be influenced by the characteristics of feed ingredients included in diets, but it is not known if different particle size of extruded corn affects the feed preference of weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective was to test the null hypothesis that there were no effects of reducing particle size of extruded corn on feed preference by weanling pigs.

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Interactive effects of reducing particle size and extrusion on energy digestibility and concentrations of digestible energy and metabolizable energy in corn fed to young pigs

Particle size reduction in cereal grains often results in an improved digestibility of starch due to increased surface area of grains, which subsequently increases the interaction with digestive enzymes. Improvement in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) upon particle size reduction has also been demonstrated in corn and a number of other ingredients when fed to weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

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Influence of particle size and origin of field peas on apparent ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A. Lee, C. Martin Nyachoti, and Hans H. Stein. 2024. Influence of particle size and origin of field peas on apparent ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids when fed to growing pigs. Translational Animal Science, 2024, 8, txae008. doi.org/10.1093/tas/txae008.

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Effects of Different Sources and Particle Sizes of Field Peas on Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and Starch by Growing Pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of Different Sources and Particle Sizes of Field Peas on Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and Starch by Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, November 2023, Pages 187–188, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.206. Link to abstract.

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Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on Ileal Digestibility of Starch and Amino Acids in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Pigs

Lee, Su A., Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on Ileal Digestibility of Starch and Amino Acids in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement, Pages 186–187, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.205. Link to abstract.

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Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on net Energy and Digestibility of Nutrients in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Group-Housed Pigs

Lee, Su A., Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on net Energy and Digestibility of Nutrients in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Group-Housed Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 185–186, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.204. Link to abstract.

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Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, C. B. Paulk, H. H. Stein. 2023. Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs. Animal - science proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 857-858. doi: 10.1016/j.anscip.2023.09.041.

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Both pelleting and reducing particle size of corn increase net energy and digestibility of amino acids and fat in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Pelleting and reducing particle size of grains often improve nutrient digestibility by pigs. Pelleting may also reduce particle size of grains, and it is not known if improvements in nutrient digestibility obtained by reducing the particle size of grain and improvements obtained by pelleting are additive or if there are interactions between particle size reduction and pelleting. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that particle size reduction and pelleting, separately or in combination, increase the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of starch, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), N balance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), fiber, and fat, and net energy (NE) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids is not affected by reducing particle sizes or different origins of field peas fed to growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have been cultivated for centuries for human consumption, due to the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, during the last years, increasing demand for field peas for livestock feeding has developed a market in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. Therefore, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices, and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as the digestibility of nutrients. Besides that, differences in the particle size of field peas may change the digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in field peas is affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review

Lancheros, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268 (2020) 114603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114603.

Processing of ingredients and diets and effects on nutritional value for pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2017. Processing of ingredients and diets and effects on nutritional value for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8:48. Link to full text

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Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A., C. Huang, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):148 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of soy protein concentrate ground to different particle sizes and fed to pigs

Casas, G. A., C. Huang, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Nutritional value of soy protein concentrate ground to different particle sizes and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:827-836. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1312-1316. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Non-antibiotic feed additives in diets for pigs

Liu, Y., D. Espinosa, J. J. Abelilla, G. A. Casas, L. V. Lagos, S. A. Lee, W. B. Kwon, J. K. Mathai, D. M.D. L. Navarro, N. W. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Non-antibiotic feed additives in diets for pigs. Pages 263-281 in Proceedings of the 2016 Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, China, October 20-21, 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of feed processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients or diets fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of feed processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients or diets fed to pigs. Pages 33-49 in Proceedings of the 2016 Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, China, October 20-21, 2016. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs

Merriman, L. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3844-3850. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal, followed by heat treatment. The ethanol extraction process removes soluble carbohydrates, leaving a product that contains at least 65% crude protein (dry matter basis). Because soy protein concentrate contains reduced levels of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, and lectins compared with conventional soybean meal, it can be used in diets for weanling pigs.

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Amino acid digestibility in soy protein concentrate with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Soy protein concentrate is produced by aqueous ethanol extraction of water-soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal, followed by heat treatment. The ethanol extraction process removes soluble carbohydrates, leaving a product that contains at least 65% crude protein. Because soy protein concentrate contains reduced levels of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, and lectins compared with conventional soybean meal, it can be used in diets for weanling pigs.

Reducing the particle size of soybean meal can increase amino acid digestibility due to the increased surface area for enzymes to work on. However, there are no known data on the effect of particle size on amino acid digestibility in soy protein concentrate. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in soy protein concentrate ground to three different particle sizes and to compare these values to values for soybean meal and fish meal when fed to weanling pigs.

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