Dietary fiber

Effects of dietary fiber on the optimum threonine:lysine ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts

Mathai, J. K., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, K. J. Touchette, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of dietary fiber on the optimum threonine:lysine ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):298 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of pelleting and extrusion on energy digestibility in pig diets containing different levels of fiber

Rojas, O. J., E. Vinyeta, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of pelleting and extrusion on energy digestibility in pig diets containing different levels of fiber. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):227-228 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of fiber on the optimal threonine:lysine ratio for 25 to 50 kg growing gilts

Use of high-fiber, low-cost ingredients, such as co-products from grain processing industries, in swine diets is increasing. Pigs fed diets containing high levels of fiber have increased intestinal mass due to increased amount of microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Therefore, they also have increased endogenous loss of amino acids in the form of mucins, the proteins that line the intestinal tract. The abrasiveness of fiber stimulates the secretion of mucins as well. These factors may cause the threonine requirement to be increased in high fiber diets, because threonine is present in large amounts in mucins. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fiber on the optimum threonine:lysine ratio (Thr:Lys) in 25 to 50 kg growing gilts.

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Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

When evaluating the energy content of pig diets, producers and feed companies in the United States usually use the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) systems. However, these systems do not take into account the heat produced by the animals during digestion, and thus the energy lost by pigs in the process of digesting and metabolizing the feed. Pigs fed diets high in fiber have greater feed intake, larger gastrointestinal tracts, and increased hindgut fermentation relative to pigs fed diets containing less fiber. Therefore, they might be expected to have greater heat production as well. As a result, the DE and ME systems may overestimate the energy value of fibrous feed ingredients. Net energy (NE) takes heat production into account, and thus may be a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the pig.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs will increase heat production and decrease net energy values.

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Effect of fiber and fat on calculated values for standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in fish meal

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effect of fiber and fat on calculated values for standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in fish meal. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):231-232 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of phytase, fiber, and fat on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in fish meal

The presence of phytate in swine diets reduces the digestibility of calcium because phytate is able to bind calcium from organic sources and some inorganic sources, making it inaccessible to the pig. Microbial phytase breaks down phytate and increases the availability of calcium. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of calcium in fish meal in diets containing phytate from corn and corn germ.

Besides phytate, corn and corn germ also add fiber and fat to diets, so it is important to know how fiber and fat affect calcium digestibility. Therefore, a second experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the values of ATTD and STTD of calcium obtained from cornstarch and corn based diets may differ, and to determine the effect of dietary fiber and fat on the ATTD and STTD of calcium in fish meal.

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Fiber in swine nutrition

Urriola, P. E., S. K. Cervantes-Pahm, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Fiber in swine nutrition. Pages 255-276 in Sustainable Swine Nutrition. Chiba, L. I., ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Ames, IA. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Evaluation of the nutritional value of sources of canola meal fed to pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Natural rapeseed contains glucosinolates, which make feed unpalatable, and erucic acid, which is toxic to animals. These anti-nutritional factors are heat-stable, and therefore, cannot be removed by heat-treating rapeseed. Rapeseed, which is low in both glucosinolates and erucic acid, has been produced by hybridization, and is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola and rapeseeds via solvent extraction or mechanically expelling. The solvent extraction process results in production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal and mechanical expelling of oil results in production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers.

The objective of this study was to compare the chemical compositions of canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal from Europe and to compare the composition of 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.  Ten samples of canola meal were collected from crushing plants in North America, and eleven samples of 00-rapeseed meal and five samples of 00-rapeseed expellers were collected from crushing plants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for energy, fat, sugar, starch, fiber, crude protein, amino acids, and minerals.

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Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in fibrous feed ingredients fed to Meishan and Yorkshire pigs

Urriola, P. E. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in fibrous feed ingredients fed to Meishan and Yorkshire pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:802-812. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of dietary fiber in growing pigs

Urriola, P. E. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of dietary fiber in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):129 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Consequences of using high-fiber ingredients in diets fed to pigs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

May, 2011

In the April newsletter, opportunities for using high-fiber feed ingredients in diets fed to pigs were discussed and recommended inclusion rates for a number of high-fiber ingredients were provided. It is assumed that if high-fiber ingredients are included in the diets at the recommended inclusion rates, pig growth performance will not be affected. There are, however, other consequences of using high-fiber ingredients that also need to be considered before these ingredients are included in the diets.

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Opportunities for using high-fiber feed ingredients

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

April, 2011

There are a number of high fiber ingredients available to swine producers. High-fiber ingredients are often available at relatively low costs because these ingredients cannot be used in the biofuel industry. High-fiber ingredients are, therefore, often attractive in feed formulation to reduce diet costs.

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Nutrient and Energy Utilization by Swine

Stein, H. H. 2010. Nutrient and energy utilization by swine. Pages 31-42 in Proc. 26th annual North Carolina Swine Nutrition conference, Nov. 10, 2010. Raleigh, NC. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in fibrous feed ingredients by Meishan and Yorkshire pigs

Urriola, P. E. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in fibrous feed ingredients by Meishan and Yorkshire pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):89 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers coproducts fed to growing pigs

Fiber digestibility is one factor in the efficiency of energy utilization in fibrous feed ingredients. Fiber can be digested via fermentation in the ileum or in the hindgut.

Fecal matter and ileal digesta from pigs fed one of 29 different diets were analyzed to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary fiber in different sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and to calculate hindgut fermentation (HGF) of dietary fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., G. C. Shurson, and H. H. Stein. 2010. Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2373-2381. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1454-1462. Link to full text (.pdf)

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